Cereals and forage plants can be successfully grown everywhere, and varied and profitable agriculture is possible even on the " pine-barrens " or uplands of the N.; but more intelligent and more intensive farming is necessary than that practised by the average " pineywoods " farmer.
In 1648 one of their ships was stranded in Table Bay, and the shipwrecked crew were left to forage for themselves on shore for several months.
Erectus is a useful forage grass on dry chalky soil.
Hay and forage are the most important crops, and Vermont grasses for grazing have been favourably known since the close of the 18th century.
Timothy was grown in the northern, and alfalfa in the southern region as a forage crop. Even at this earliest period, irrigation, simple and individual, had begun in the southern section, the head waters of the few streams in this district being soon surrounded by farms. Co-operation and colonization followed, and more ditching was done, co-operative irrigation canals were constructed with some elaborate and large dams and head gates.
The most valuable field crop in 1907 was hay and forage, consisting mostly of clover and cultivated grasses; in 1899 the value of this crop was 20.2% of that of all crops.
Panicum, a very polymorphic genus, and one of the largest in the order, is widely spread in all warm countries; together with species of Paspalum they form good forage grasses in the South American savannas and campos.
The cultivation of green forage is extensive and is divided into the categories of temporary and perennial.
In 1900, 88.9% of its farm acreage was devoted to hay and forage crops, being more than doubled in the decade.
On a rough estimate we may reckon that, of the space lying between the summits of the Alps and the low country on either side, one-quarter is available for cultivation, of which about one-half may be vineyards and corn-fields, while the remainder produces forage and grass.
The amount of forage that may be produced in this way is enormous; 50,000 to 80,000 lb of green fodder are grown per acre, which makes 8000 to 12,000 lb as field-cured.
The value of cereals ($4,700,271) - of which wheat and oats represent four-fifths - is much exceeded by that of hay and forage ($8,159,279 in 1899).
Of the crops, hay and forage were the most valuable ($4,238,993), yielding 47.4% of the total value of crops, an increase of more than 200% over that of 1889, and in 1907, according to the Year-book of the Department of Agriculture, the crop was valued at $8,585,000.
Of the total acreage in 1900 of all crops 58' 3% was in cereals and 28'8% in hay and forage; of the acreage of cereals 40' 8% was in wheat, 31 8% in Indian corn, 21 6% in oats and 3.7% in rye.
2 Sedges available for forage grow in the tundra.
Hay is still by far the largest crop, the acreage of it and of forage in 1899 being 1,270,254 acres, or 76.5% of that of all crops, and the yield was 1,133,932 tons; in 1907 the acreage was 1,400,000 acres, and the crop was 2,100,000 tons.
The only British representative is Cynodon Dactylon (dog's tooth, Bermuda grass) found on sandy shores in the south-west of England; it is a cosmopolitan, covering the ground in sandy soils, and forming an important forage grass in many dry climates (Bermuda grass of the southern United States, and known as durba, dub and other names in India).
The value of the hay and forage crop in 1899 was $3,862,820, or 46.9% of the value of all crops, and its acreage was 388,043 acres, or 56.5% of the acreage of all crops; in 1909, the acreage in hay was 375,000 acres, and its value was $9,792,000.
They are often cut whilst still tender, dried and used as forage being known as oat hay (67,742,000 bundles of about 52 lb each were produced in 1904).
The discussion, which had originally turned on the franchise, was enlarged by the introduction of the question of suzerainty or supremacy; and at last, in the beginning of October, when the rains of an African spring were causing the grass to grow on which the Boer armies were largely dependent for forage, the Boers declared war and invaded Natal.
In 1907-8, according to the state Department of Agriculture, the total value of all field crops (cotton, cereals, sugar-cane, hay and forage, sweet potatoes, &c.) was $11,856,340, and the total value of all farm products (including live stock, $20,817,804, poultry and products, $1,688,433, and dairy products, $1,728,642) was $46,371,320.
In Nejd the number of horses is, comparatively speaking, very small; the want of water in the Nafud where alone forage is obtainable, and the absence of forage in the neighbourhood of the towns makes horse-breeding on a large scale impracticable there.
As a cerealproducing state Colorado is, however, relatively unimportant; nor in value of product is its hay and forage crop notable, except that of alfalfa, which greatly surpasses that of any other state.
Paspalum, is a large tropical genus, most abundant in America, especially on the pampas and campos; many species are good forage plants, and the grain is sometimes used for food.
Potatoes, rye, lucerne and other kinds of forage are also important crops.
The locust bean (used for forage), figs, and peaches are widely grown, while in certain special zones the pistachio and the manna-ash yield rich returns.
The appointment was not only one of the most important in this quarter of the kingdom, but lucrative as well, part of the fines and forfeits falling to the warden, who was also entitled to ration and forage for his retinue.
Of Great Britain rye is chiefly or solely cultivated as a forage-plant for cattle and horses, being usually sown in autumn for spring use, after the crop of roots, turnips, &c., is exhausted, and before the clover and lucerne are ready.
For forage purposes it is best to cut early, before the leaves and haulms have been exhausted of their supplies to benefit the grain.
Clover, lucerne and sainfoin make up the bulk of artificial pasturage, while vetches, crimson clover and cabbage are the other chief forage crops.
The plain of Toulouse, which with the rest of south-western France produces good draught oxen, the Parisian basin, the plains of the north to the east of the maritime region, the lower valley of the Rhflne and tile Bresse, where there is little or no natural pasturage, and forage is grown from seed.