France and Great Britain jointly acquired the cables between Calais and Dover, Boulogne and Folkestone, Dieppe and Beachy Head, Havre and Beachy Head, Piron, near Coutances, and Vieux Châteaux (St Heliers, Jersey).
FOLKESTONE, a municipal borough, seaport and wateringplace of Kent, England, within the parliamentary borough of Hythe, 71 m.
The older part of Folkestone lies in a small valley which here opens upon the shore between steep hills.
Folkestone inner harbour is dry at low water, but there is a deep water pier for use at low tide by the Channel steamers, by which not only the passenger traffic, but also a large general trade are carried on.
The discontinued Harveian Institution for young men was named after William Harvey, discoverer of the circulation of the blood, a native of Folkestone (1578), who is also commemorated by a tercentenary memorial on the Lees.
Folkestone is a member of the Cinque Port of Dover.
To the west of Folkestone, close to Shorncliffe camp, is the populous suburb of Cheriton (an urban district, pop. 7091).
Folkestone (Folcestan) was among the possessions of Earl Godwine and was called upon to supply him with ships when he was exiled from England; at the time of the Domesday Survey it belonged to Odo, bishop of Bayeux.
It shared the privileges of the Cinque Ports, whose liberties were exemplified at the request of the barons of Folkestone by Edward III.
The history of Folkestone is a record of its struggle against the sea, which was constantly encroaching upon the town.
In the Chalk of the south-east of England nodules of marcasite with a fibrous radiated structure are abundant, and in the Chalk Marl between Dover and Folkestone fine twinned groups of "spear pyrites" are common.
These cliffs continue round the South Foreland to Folkestone, where they fall away, and are succeeded west of Sandgate by a flat shingly shore.
To the south the London basin is succeeded by the North Downs, an elevated ridge of country consisting of an outcrop of chalk which extends from Westerham to Folkestone with an irregular breadth generally of 3 to 6 miles, but expanding to nearly 12 miles at Dartford and Gravesend and also to the north of Folkestone.
This is succeeded by an outcrop of the Lower Greensand - including the Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe beds with the thin Atherfield Clay at the base - which extends across the country from west to east with a breadth of from 2 to 7 m., and rises into the picturesque elevations of the Ragstone hills.
This system includes some of the principal channels of communication with the continent, through the ports of Dover, Folkestone and Queenborough.
Seaside resorts are numerous and populous - on the north coast are Minster (Sheppey), Whitstable and Herne Bay; there is a ring of watering-places round the Isle of ThanetBirchington, Westgate, Margate, Broadstairs, Ramsgate; while to the south are Sandwich, Deal, Walmer, St Margaret's-at-Cliffe, Dover, Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe.
The municipal boroughs are Bromley (pop. 27,354), Canterbury, a city and county borough (24,889), Chatham (37,057), Deal (10,581), Dover (4 1, 794), Faversham (11,290), Folkestone (30,650), Gillingham (42,530), Gravesend (27,196), Hythe (5557), Lydd (2675), Maidstone (33,516), Margate (23,118), New Romney (1328), Queenborough (1544), Ramsgate (2 7,733), Rochester, a city (30,590), Sandwich (3170), Tenterden (324.3), Tunbridge Wells (33,373) The urban districts are Ashford (12,808), Beckenham (26,331), Bexley (12,918), Broadstairs and St Peter's (6466), Cheriton (7091), Chislehurst (7429), Dartford (18,644), Erith (25,296), Foots Cray (5817), Herne Bay (6726), Milton (7086), Northfleet (12,906), Penge (22,465), Sandgate (2294), Sevenoaks (8106), Sheerness (18,179), Sittingbourne (8943), Southborough (6977), Tonbridge (12,736), Walmer (5614), Whitstable (7086), Wrotham (3571).
The boroughs having separate commissions of the peace and courts of quarter sessions are Canterbury, Deal, Dover, Faversham, Folkestone, Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone, Margate, Rochester, Sandwich and Tenterden; while those of Lydd, New Romney, Ramsgate and Tunbridge Wells have separate commissions of the peace.
Other Saxon foundations were the nunneries at Folkestone (630), Lyminge (633; nunnery and monastery), Reculver (669), Minster-in-Thanet (670), Minster-in-Sheppey (675), and the priory of St Martin at Dover (696), all belonging to the Benedictine order.
Some of these were refounded, and the principal monastic remains now existing are those of the Benedictine priories at Rochester (1089), Folkestone (1095), Dover (1140); the Benedictine nunneries at Malling (time of William Rufus),Minster-in-Sheppey (1130), Higham (founded by King Stephen), and Davington (I 153); the Cistercian Abbey at Boxley (1146); the Cluniac abbey at Faversham (1147) and priory at Monks Horton (time of Henry II.), the preceptory of Knights Templars at Swingfield (time of Henry II.); the Premonstratensian abbey of St Radigund's, near Dover (1191); the first house of Dominicans in England at Canterbury (1221); the first Carmelite house in England, at Aylesford (1240); and the priory of Augustinian nuns at Dartford (1355).
Mary and Eanswith, Folkestone, Minster-in-Thanet, Chalk, with its curious porch, Faversham and Westwell, with fine contemporary glass, are also worthy of notice.
The view from the castle keep includes on a clear day the line of cliffs from Folkestone to Ramsgate on the one side, and from Boulogne to Gravelines on the other side of the strait.
For the purpose of showing the relative importance of British and Irish ports falling below the list, the following figures may be quoted for 1909 only: Methil, entered 824,375 tons, cleared 1,105,048 tons; Harwich, entered 792,980, cleared 776,595; Grangemouth, entered 988,007, cleared 1,064,217; Burntisland, entered 609,722, cleared 815,507; Bristol, entered858,933, cleared 615,266; Goole, entered 815,177, cleared 817,226; Hartlepool, entered 934, 8 3 6, cleared 730,141; Newhaven, entered 385,313, cleared 376,083; Folkestone, entered 364,524, cleared 359,697; Belfast, entered 490,51 3, cleared 165,670; Borrowstounness (Bo'ness), entered 3 01, 549, cleared 292,194; Dublin, entered 219,081, cleared 80,868; Cork, entered 146,724, cleared 7413; Maryport and Workington, entered 118,388, cleared 67,494 The figures for Plymouth have included vessels which call "off" the port to embark passengers, &c., by tender only since 1907; for 1909 they were: entered, 1,455,605; cleared, 1,292,244.
Folkestone and Pevensey stand where the two ends of the broken ring meet the sea.
Steamship services between Folkestone and Boulogne, Dover and Calais, &c.
Folkestone to Boulogne (South Eastern & Chatham railway).