With advancing age its foliage becomes of a dark, almost black hue.
Giovanni Evangelista at the Frari, with its fore-court and screen adorned by pilasters delicately decorated with foliage in low relief, and its noble staircase whose double flights unite on a landing under a shallow cupola.
It was formerly assumed, and the view is still held, that the foliage-leaf was the primitive form from which all others were derived, mainly on the ground that, in ontogeny, the foliage-leaf generally precedes the sporophyll.
The sloth (Bradypus) is an arboreal animal which feeds almost exclusively on the foliage of the Cecropias.
This layer he believes specially characteristic of arid dusty regions, while comparatively non-existent in moist climates or where foliage is luxuriant.
The catkins appear soon after the young leaves, usually in England towards the end of May; the acorns, oblong in form, are in shallow cups with short, scarcely projecting scales; the fruit is shed the first autumn, often before the foliage changes.
In the woods of Oregon, from the Columbia river southwards, an oak is found bearing some resemblance to the British oak in foliage and in its thick trunk and widely-spreading boughs, but the bark is white as in Q.
These bodies, known technically as chioroplaIts, are found embedded in the protoplasm of the cells of the mesophyll of foliage leaves, of certain of the cells of some of the leaves of the flower, and of the cortex of the young twigs and petioles.
Some very curious details are observable in these cases of malformation, For instance, the Aecidium eta/mum first referred to causes the new shoots to differ in direction, duration and arrangement, and even shape of foliage leaves from the normal; and the shoots of Euphorbia infected with the aecidia of Uromyces Pisi depart so much from the normal in appearance that the attacked plants have been taken for a different species.
Accepting this view of the phylogeny of the leaf, the perianthleaves (sepals and petals) and the foliage-leaves may be regarded as modified or metamorphosed sporophylls; that is, as leaves which are adapted to functions other than the bearing of spores.
The sepals are generally organs for the protection of the flower-bud; the petals, for attracting insects by their conspicuous form and color; the foliage-leaves, for the assimilation of carbon dioxide and other associated functions.
Similarly bud-scales can be caused to develop into foliage-leaves, if the buds to which they belong are caused to grow out in the year of, their formation by the removal of the existing foliage-leaves.
The effect of external conditions is confined to the modification in various directions of members or organs already existing, and cne very common direction is that of reduction or entire disappearance of parts: for instance, the foliage-leaves of certain xerophytes (e.g.
The stout horizontally spreading branches give a cedar-like appearance; the foliage is light and feathery; the leaves and the slender shoots which bear them fall in the autumn.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
The boughs and their side-branches, as they increase in length, have a tendency to droop, the lower tier, even in large trees, often sweeping the ground - a habit that, with the jagged sprays, and broad, shadowy, wave-like foliage-masses, gives a peculiarly graceful and picturesque aspect to the Norway spruce.
On the Swiss Alps it is one of the most prevalent and striking of the forest trees, its dark evergreen foliage often standing out in strong contrast to the snowy ridges and glaciers beyond.
But when it grows in dense woods, where the lower branches decay and drop off early, only a small head of foliage remaining at the tapering summit, its stem, though frequently of great height, is rarely more than 11 or 2 ft.
As a picturesque tree, for park and ornamental plantation, it is among the best of the conifers, its colour and form contrasting yet harmonizing with the olive green and rounded outline of oaks and beeches, or with the red trunk and glaucous foliage of the pine.
The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.
The flat leaves are arranged in two regular, distinct rows; they are deep green above, but beneath have two broad white lines, which, as the foliage in large trees has a tendency to curl upwards, give it a silvery appearance from below.
It was formerly supposed that this custom was peculiar to a single species, which was called the "gossamer" spider from the fact that the floating webs, when brought to the earth by rain or intercepted by bushes and trees, coat the foliage or grass with a sheeting of gossamer-like silk; but the habit is now known to be practised by the newly-hatched young of a great variety of species belonging to several distinct families.
After the fruit has set, the foliage should be refreshed and cleansed by the daily use of the syringe or garden engine.
The outer coat was then removed from that portion which was to constitute the ground, leaving the white for the figures, foliage or other ornamentation; these were then sculptured by means of the gem-engraver's tools.
The enamelled decoration on the lamps is restricted to lettering, scrolls and conventional foliage; on other objects figure-subjects of all descriptions are freely used.
For currants and raisins, both produced by varieties of the grape-vine, see the respective articles.] Apart from their economic value, vines are often cultivated for purely ornamental purposes, owing to the elegance of their foliage, the rich coloration they assume, the shade they afford, and their hardihood.
What makes this sand foliage remarkable is its springing into existence thus suddenly.
The tree has a remarkable appearance, due to shedding its primary branches for about five-sixths of its height and replacing them by a small bushy growth, the whole resembling a tall column crowned with foliage, suggesting to its discoverer, Captain Cook, a tall column of basalt.
The west coast throughout its whole length is covered to a depth of some miles with mangrove swamps, with only a few isolated stretches of sandy beach, the dim foliage of the mangroves and the hideous mud flats presenting a depressing spectacle.
The foliage in some of the numerous varieties is almost evergreen, and in Britain is retained long after the autumnal withering.
Both these oaks grow well in British plantations, where their bright autumn foliage, though seldom so decided in tint as in their native woods, gives them a certain picturesque value.
- (Residence at the Court of London, p. 286.) Bentham's love of flowers and music, of green foliage and shaded walks, comes clearly out in this pleasant picture of his home life and social surroundings.
The hypocotyl usually elongates, by its cells increasing very greatly in the longitudinal direction both in number and size, so that the cotyledons are raised into the air as the first foliage-leaves.