In that case, however, in the compound microscope a small object may always be represented by means of wider pencils, one of the foci of the objective (not of the collective system) being near it.
In the monkey the proportions it assumes are still greater, and the number of foci, for distinct movements of this and that member, indeed for the individual joints of each limb, are much more numerous, and together occupy a more extensive surface, though relatively to the total surface of the brain a smaller one.
The magnifying power of the telescope is = Ff /ex, where F and f are respectively the focal lengths of the large and the small mirror, e the focal length of the eye-piece, and x the distance between the principal foci of the two mirrors (=Ff in the diagram) when the instrument is in adjustment for viewing distant objects.
This theory he founded on 2 Kings xxii.; and ever since, this chapter has been one of the recognized foci of Biblical criticism.
Also the auxiliarly circle is the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars from the foci on any tangent.
2 " In the same way we may conclude that in flat gratings any departure from a straight line has the effect of causing the dust in the slit and the spectrum to have different foci - a fact sometimes observed " (Rowland, " On Concave Gratings for Optical Purposes," Phil.
Negative values of n must be interpreted by a streaming motion on a parallel plane at a level slightly different, as on a double Riemann sheet, the stream passing from one sheet to the other across a cut SS' joining the foci S, S'.
Also several optical problems relating to lenses of various forms and their combinations for telescopic projection, rules for finding foci, &c. He does not, however, mention the camera obscura as an instrument in use, but in John Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704) we find that the camera obscura with the arrangement called the "scioptric ball," and known as scioptricks, was on sale in London, and after this must have been in common use as a sketching instrument or as a show.
It is important to note that although sleeping sickness (of which the chief foci are at present the Congo Free State and Uganda) has hitherto been associated with one particular species of Glossina, it has been shown experi mentally both that other tsetse-flies are able to transmit the parasite of the disease, and that G.
The castles of these great lords were the foci of the social and political life of their respective provinces.
Larger and thicker in the rabbit, when excited it gives rise in that animal to movements of the eyes and of the fore-limbs and neck; but it is only in much higher types, such as the dog, that the cortex yields, under experimental excitation, definitely localized foci, whence can be evoked movements of the fore-limb, hind-limb, neck, eyes, ears and face.
Experiment shows that in the manlike (anthropoid) apes the differentiation of the foci or "centres" of movement in the motor field of the cortex is even more minute.
The excitable foci of the cerebral cortex are well myelinated long before the unexcitable are so.
That in man the excitable foci of the motor field are islanded in excitable surface similarly and even more extensively, was a natural inference, but it had its chief basis in the observations on the orang, now known to be erroneous.
Both these preparations should only be used in cases where it is possible to exclude any tuberculous foci, or by their action in breaking down protective fibrous tissues they may cause a quiescent lesion to become active.
It will be seen, then, that the visual and photographic foci are now merged in one, and the image is practically as achromatic as that yielded by a reflector.
Showed that, if the large mirror were a segment of a paraboloid of revolution whose focus is F, and the small mirror an ellipsoid of revolution whose foci are F and P respectively, the resulting image will be plane and undistorted.
Besides streets running east and west, which are named by the letters of the alphabet, and streets running north and south, which are numbered, there are avenues named for various states, which radiate from two foci - the Capitol and the White House - or traverse the city without any fixed plan.
Johann Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit round the sun, whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit, that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun describes equal areas in equal times, and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.
Similarly any other property might be used as a definition; an ellipse is the locus of a point such that the sum of its distances from two fixed points (the foci) is constant, &c., &c.
The points called foci presented themselves in the theory of the conic, and were well known to the Greek geometers, but the general notion of a focus was first established by Plucker (in the memoir " Uber solche Puncte die bei Curven einer hdheren Ordnung den Brennpuncten der Kegelschnitte entsprechen " (Crelle, t.
There will be from each circular point X tangents (X, a number depending on the class of the curve and its relation to the line infinity and the circular points, 2 for the general conic, 1 for the parabola, 2 for a circular cubic, or bicircular quartic, &c.); the X tangents from the one circular point and those from the other circular point intersect in X real foci (viz.
Each of these is the only real point on each of the tangents through it), and in X 2 -X imaginary foci; each pair of real foci determines a pair of imaginary foci (the so-called antipoints of the two real foci), and the 2X(X-1) pairs of real foci thus determine the X 2 ---X imaginary foci.
There are in some cases points termed centres, or singular or multiple foci (the nomenclature is unsettled), which are the intersections of improper tangents from the two circular points respectively; thus, in the circular cubic, the tangents to the curve at the two circular points respectively (or two imaginary asymptotes of the curve) meet in a centre.
Metrical relations between the axes, eccentricity, distance between the foci, and between these quantities and the co-ordinates of points on the curve (referred to the axes and the centre), and focal distances are readily obtained by the methods of geometrical conics or analytically.
Of the properties of a tangent it may be noticed that the tangent at any point is equally inclined to the focal distances of that point; that the feet of the perpendiculars from the foci on any tangent always lie on the auxiliary circle, and the product of these perpendiculars is constant, and equal to the product of the distances of a focus from the two vertices.
From any point without the curve two, and only two, tangents can be drawn; if OP, OP' be two tangents from 0, and S, S' the foci, then the angles OSP, OSP' are equal and also SOP, S'OP'.
Of practical importance are the following constructions: - (I) Given the axes; (2) given the major axis and the foci; (3) given the focus, eccentricity and directrix; (4) to construct an ellipse (approximately) by means of circular arcs.
If one of the foci be at infinity, the conics are confocal parabolas, which may also be regarded as parabolas having a common focus and axis.
According to the laws of optics it is only possible either to portray a small object near one of the foci of the system with wide pencils, or to produce an image from a relatively large object by correspondingly narrow pencils.
F l, F1' =objectand image-side foci of objec tive.
F 1 ' =objectand image-side foci of objective.
F2' =objectand image-side foci of eyepiece.
(2) If the major axis and foci be given, there is a convenient mechanical construction based on the property that the sum of the focal distances of any point is constant and equal to the major axis.
A line became continuous, returning into itself by way of infinity; two parallel lines intersect in a point at infinity; all circles pass through two fixed points at infinity (the circular points); two spheres intersect in a fixed circle at infinity; an asymptote became a tangent at infinity; the foci of a conic became the intersections of the tangents from the circular points at infinity; the centre of a conic the pole of the line at infinity, &c. In analytical geometry the line at infinity plays an important part in trilinear co-ordinates.
The effects produced by bacteria may be considered under the following heads: (I) tissue changes produced in the vicinity of the bacteria, either at the primary or secondary foci; (2) tissue changes produced at a distance by absorption of their toxins; (3) symptoms. The changes in the vicinity of bacteria are to be regarded partly as the direct result of the action of toxins on living cells, and partly as indicating a reaction on the part of the tissues.
The accompanying simple figure indicates better than any verbal description the topography of the main groups of foci in the motor field of a manlike ape (chimpanzee).
Netaacet Diagram of the Topography of the Main Groups of Foci in the Motor of Chimpanzee.
The motor field, therefore, though absolutely larger, forms a smaller fraction of the whole cortex of the brain than in the lower forms. The statement that in the anthropoid (orang-outan) brain the groups of foci in the motor fields of the cortex are themselves separated one from another by surrounding inexcitable cortex, has been made and was one of great interest, but has not been confirmed by subsequent observat'on.
By embolism is meant the more or less sudden stoppage of a vessel by a plug of solid matter carried thither by the current of the blood; be it a little clot from the heart or, what is far more pernicious, an infective fragment from some focus of infection in the body, by which messengers new foci of infection may be scattered about the body.
If "=4), the term of the first order vanishes, and the reduction of the difference of path via P and via A to a term of the fourth order proves not only that Q and Q' are conjugate foci, but also that the foci are exempt from the most important term in the aberration.
(casale) the rustici were grouped in families (foci): the tenants paid from 4 to a of the crop, besides a poll-tax and labour-dues.