In the latter case, the densities of the fluids will be inversely proportional to the volumes thus displaced.
With reference to the findings of the Malkowal commission the Institute were asked to report: (1) On the comparative efficacy of the standard and new fluids as a 1898, the mean mortality among the inoculated was 1.3%; among the uninoculated 13.2%.
The first volume of the Histoire et memoires de l'Academie (1733) contains many original papers by him upon a great variety of physical subjects, such as the motion of fluids, the nature of colour, the notes of the trumpet, the barometer, the fall of bodies, the recoil of guns, the freezing of water, &c.
Adopting the hypothesis of two fluids, Coulomb investigated experimentally and theoretically the distribution of electricity on the surface of bodies by means of his proof plane.
- The blood fluids of Limulus and Scorpio are very similar.
The treatment is far from satisfactory, and consists in keeping up the strength and diluting the poison in the blood and in the urine by the administration of bland fluids, such as soda-water, milk and plain water, in quantities as large as possible.
In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.
Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.
His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."
They also occur in the fluids of the living organism.
They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.
Mucins occur in most of the slimy fluids of the body; they vary in composition with their source.
In the animal kingdom, also, it is very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes, and may be present in nearly all the body fluids.
A magnetizable substance was supposed to consist of an indefinite number of spherical particles, each containing equivalent quantities of the two fluids, which could move freely within a particle, but could never pass from one particle to another.
When the fluids inside a particle were mixed together, the particle was neutral; when they were more or less completely separated, the particle became magnetized to an intensity depending upon the magnetic force applied; the whole body therefore consisted of a number of little spheres having north and south poles, each of which exerted an elementary action at a distance.
The Memoirs of the Berlin Academy from 1761 to 1784 contain many of his papers, which treat of such subjects as resistance of fluids, magnetism, comets, probabilities, the problem of three bodies, meteorology, &c. In the Acta Helvetica (1752-1760) and in the Nova acta erudita (1763-1769) several of his contributions appear.
Repair Of Injuries In the process of inflammation we have a series of reactions on the part of the tissues, and fluids of the body, to counteract the ill effects of irritation or injury, to get rid of the cause, and to repair its results.
This acquired immunity is brought about by the development of a protective body as a result of the struggle of the cells and fluids of the body with the invading bacteria and their toxins.
In resenting such insults, a remarkable uniformity and regularity in the processes is brought about by the different cells and fluids of the healthy tissues of the body.
The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles.
Notwithstanding these inventions of the Alexandrian school, its attention does not seem to have been directed to the motion of fluids; and the first attempt to investigate this subject was made by Sextus Julius Frontinus, inspector of the public fountains at Rome in the reigns of Nerva and Trajan.
In 1628 Castelli published a small work, Della misura dell' acque correnti, in which he satisfactorily explained several phenomena in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; but he committed a great paralogism in supposing the velocity of the water proportional to the depth of the orifice below the surface of the vessel.
P. Hachette (1769-1834) in1816-1817published memoirs containing the results of experiments on the spouting of fluids and the discharge of vessels.
A fluid, as the name implies, is a substance which flows, or is capable of flowing; water and air are the two fluids distributed most universally over the surface of the earth.
Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.
Laennec, to whom we are indebted for the practice of auscultation, freely admits that the idea was suggested to him by study of Hippocrates, who, treating of the presence of morbid fluids in the thorax, gives very particular directions, by 1 " Hippocrates Cous, primus quidem ex omnibus memoria dignus, ab studio sapientiae disciplinam hanc separavit, vir et arte et facundia insignis " (Celsus, De medicina).
In 1738 appeared his Hydrodynamica, in which the equilibrium, the pressure, the reaction and varied velocities of fluids are considered both theoretically and practically.
We must remember that the ocean is a continuous sheet of water of a certain depth, and the conditions of continuity which hold good for all fluids require that there should be no vacant space within it; hence if a single water particle is set in motion, the whole ocean must respond, as Varenius pointed out in 1650.
That the results do not agree even 1 " On the Cohesions of Fluids," Phil.
Not only was he the first discoverer of the rotifers, but he showed "how wonderfully nature has provided for the preservation of their species," by their tolerance of the drying-up of the water they inhabit, and the resistance afforded to the evaporation of the fluids of their bodies by the impermeability of the casing in which they then become enclosed.
In 1714 Ditton published his Discourse on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; and The New Law of Fluids, or a Discourse concerning the Ascent of Liquids in exact Geometrical Figures, between two nearly contiguous Surfaces.
The acetate and the citrate are valuable mild diuretics in Bright's disease and in feverish conditions, and by increasing the amount of urine diminish the pathological fluids in pleuritic effusion, ascites, &c. In tubal nephritis they aid the excretion of fatty casts.
15Swp, water, and p rpov, a measure), an instrument for determining the density of bodies, generally of fluids, but in some cases of solids.
It is upon this principle that the hydrometer is constructed, and it obviously admits of two modes of application in the case of fluids: either we may compare the weights of floating bodies which are capable of displacing the same volume of different fluids, or we may compare the volumes of the different fluids which are displaced by the same weight.
Thermometer, since, fluids generally expanding more than the solids of which the instrument is constructed, the instrument will sink as the temperature rises.
This action, at first sight somewhat obscure, is due to the extreme pupillary contraction which removes the mass of the iris from pressing upon the spaces of Fontana, through which the intraocular fluids normally make a very slow escape from the eye into its efferent lymphatics.
P. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."
The quantity of substance which diffuses through unit area in one second may be taken as proportional to the difference in concentration between the fluids at that area and at another parallel area indefinitely near it.
The second of these essays opens with the striking remark, "There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the unmixed gases"; further, after describing experiments to ascertain the tension of aqueous vapour at different points between 32° and 212° F., he concludes, from observations on the vapour of six different liquids, "that the variation of the force of vapour from all liquids is the same for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapour of any given force."
In the fourth essay he remarks, "I see no sufficient reason why we may not conclude that all elastic fluids under the same pressure expand equally by heat and that for any given expansion of mercury, the corresponding expansion of air is proportionally something less, the higher the temperature..
It seems, therefore, that general laws respecting the absolute quantity and the nature of heat are more likely to be derived from elastic fluids than from other substances."
It may be noted that in a paper on the "Proportion of the gases or elastic fluids constituting the atmosphere," read by him in November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be anticipated in the words - "The elements of oxygen may combine with a certain portion of nitrous gas or with twice that portion, but with no intermediate quantity," but there is reason to suspect that this sentence was added some time after the reading of the paper, which was not published till 1805.
The Stem and its' subdivisions or branches raise to the light and air the leaves and flowers, serve as channels for the passage to them of fluids from the roots, and act as reservoirs for nutritive substances.
The wonder, however, seems to be that it does not occur more frequently, seeing that fluids must pass from stock to scion, and matter elaborated in the leaves of the scion must certainly to some extent enter the stock.
Latex-tubes abound in the tissues of Lactarius, Stereum, Mycena, Fistulina, filled with white or coloured milky fluids, and Istvanffvi has shown that similar tubes with fluid or oily contents are widely spread in other Hymenomycetes.
Conduction, however, is generally understood to include diffusion of heat in fluids due to the agitation of the ultimate molecules, which is really molecular convection.
In measuring conduction of heat in fluids, it is possible to some extent to eliminate the effects of molar convection or mixing, but it would not be possible to distinguish between diffusion, or internal radiation, and conduction.
His experiments and his treatise (written before 1651, published 1663) on the equilibrium of fluids entitle him to rank with Galileo and Stevinus as one of the founders of the science of hydrodynamics.
His published work includes Algemeene Theorie der VloeistojJen (General Theory of the Fluids, 1881).
Subsequent papers by Dulong were concerned with " New determinations of the proportions of water and the density of certain elastic fluids " (1820, with Berzelius); the property possessed by certain metals of facilitating the combination of gases (1823 with Thenard); the refracting powers of gases (1826); and the specific heats of gases (1829).
He managed to keep his body fluids up by frequent gulps to replenish his rapidly diminishing energy.
Wright and others, in recent work on opsonins, have shown that, by injecting dead cultures of the causal agent into subjects infected with the organism, there is produced in the body fluids a substance (opsonin) which apparently in favourable conditions unites with the living causal bacteria and so sensitizes them that they are readily taken up and destroyed by the phagocytic cells of tissues.
U3po ajXavuta), the science of the mechanics of water and fluids in general, including hydrostatics or the mathematical theory of fluids in equilibrium, and hydromechanics, the theory of fluids in motion.
The theorem of Torricelli was employed by many succeeding writers, but particularly by Edme Mariotte (1620-1684), whose Traite du mouvement des eaux, published after his death in the year 1686, is founded on a great variety of well-conducted experiments on the motion of fluids, performed at Versailles and Chantilly.
He applied this principle to the motion of fluids, and gave a specimen of its application at the end of his Dynamics in 1743.
The resolution of the questions concerning the motion of fluids was effected by means of Euler's partial differential coefficients.
This calculus was first applied to the motion of water by d'Alembert, and enabled both him and Euler to represent the theory of fluids in formulae restricted by no particular hypothesis.
Following in the steps of the Abbe Charles Bossut (Nouvelles Experiences sur la resistance des fluides, 1777), he published, in 1786, a revised edition of his Principes d'hydraulique, which contains a satisfactory theory of the motion of fluids, founded solely upon experiments.
Normal butyric acid or fermentation butyric acid is found in butter, as an hexyl ester in the oil of Heracleum giganteum and as an octyl ester in parsnip (Pastinaca sativa); it has also been noticed in the fluids of the flesh and in perspiration.