From July to October the level of the Senegal shows a series of fluctuations, with, however, a general increase till the end of August or beginning of September, when the maximum occurs.
The pastoral and agricultural industries have been hampered by fluctuations in the value of the currency, farm products being sold at a gold value for the equivalent in paper, while labourers are paid in currency.
The constant fluctuations in the value of the currency, then much depreciated, intensified the distress and complicated the situation.
To check these prejudicial fluctuations and to prevent too great a fall in the price of gold (to repeat a popular misconception), a £42,297,050 30,395,916 11,763,923 £ 84,456,889 £IO,178,718 05,$24,375,067 gold,.
The violent fluctuations in the value of the paper dollar, which caused so much damage to trade and industry, were thus checked.
Since 1875 the expenditure of the state has passed through considerable fluctuations- It reached its maximum in 1883, descended E dl- in 1888 and 1889, and since then has continuously inxpeft creased.
The fact is that the wind is continually varying in force, and while the ordinary pressure plate is admirably adapted for measuring the force of a steady and uniform wind, it is entirely unsuitable for following the rapid fluctuations of the natural wind.
When the key is released the condensers and cables at once begin to return to zero potential, and if the key is depressed and released several times in rapid succession the cable is divided into sections of varying potential, which travel rapidly towards the receiving end, and indicate their arrival there by producing corresponding fluctuations in the charge of the condenser C3.
If the fluctuations are irregular and non-periodic, teristics the sound is called a noise; if they are cyclic and follow a regular and sufficiently rapid periodic law, the sound is musical.
The pitch of a musical sound depends on the number of cycles passed through by the fluctuations of the pressure per unit of time; the loudness depends on the amount or the amplitude of the fluctuation in each cycle; the quality depends on the form or the nature of the fluctuation in each cycle.
When the connecting string is held taut and sounds, such as those of ordinary speech, are produced in front of one of the membranes, pulses corresponding to the fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure are transmitted along the string and communicated to the other membrane, which in its turn communicates them to the air, thus reproducing the sound.
1 No account has here been taken of fluctuations of exchange.
Violent fluctuations have, however, taken place from year to year, according to the state of Italian finances.
This is especially the case in the lichens (symbiotic organisms composed of a fungal mycelium in association with algal cells), which are usually exposed to very severe fluctuations in external conditions.
In North America there is no such barrier: the Miocene flora has been able to escape by migration the fluctuations of climate and to return when they ameliorated.
Attention must also be paid to the artificial restrictions of political geography, to the legislative restrictions bearing on labour and trade as imposed in different countries, and, above all, to the incessant fluctuations of the economic conditions of supply and demandand the combinations of capitalists or workers which affect the market.4 The term " applied geography " has been employed to designate commercial geography, the fact being that every aspect of scientific geography may be applied to practical purposes, including the purposes of trade.
The history in Kings was not finally settled until a very late date, as is evident from the important variations in the Septuagint, and it is especially in the description of the time of Solomon and the disruption that there continued to be considerable fluctuations.'
This, however, was not the case, for a fairly uniform decrease in the barley area was accompanied by somewhat irregular fluctuations in the acreage of oats.
10,014,625 1900.8,707,602 1905.8,333,770 Disregarding minor fluctuations, there was thus a loss of corn land over the 30 years of 3,065,260 acres, or 27%.
It is estimated that the reduction in yield of the unmanured plot over the forty years, 1852-1891, after the growth of the crops without manure during the eight preceding years, was, provided it had been uniform throughout, equivalent to a decline of one-sixth of a bushel from year to year due to exhaustion - that is, irrespectively of fluctuations due to season.
We cannot assume that the fluctuations in wages were due to the action or inaction of magistrates without the most careful examination of the other influences affecting the trades.
Although we cannot yet define the conditions under which exopterygotous wings are suppressed or unusually developed, yet we know that such fluctuations occur.
The exports dwindled from 3600 bales in 1865 to 946 in 1905; great fluctuations occur, the export in 1904, for example, being only 338 bales.
In one day, for instance, when the net drop was 33 points and the range of variation 59 points (namely, 8.45 to 7.86), 150 price fluctuations were recorded.
The sole piece of evidence, from which probable conclusions may be drawn, is that three separate measurements of price fluctuations over some forty years reveal a growing unsteadiness of late, whether they be expressed absolutely or as percentages of price.
On the other hand, hot-wire instruments are very " dead-beat," that is to say, the needle does not move much for the small fluctuations in the current, and this quality is generally increased by affixing to the index needle a small copper plate which is made to move in a strong magnetic field (see fig.
The level of the lake is subject to seasonal fluctuations, reaching a maximum in midsummer and a minimum in February, as well as to alternating cycles of years of high and low water.
The chief exports are raw cotton, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, hides and lac. The exports of wheat are liable to extreme fluctuations, especially during famine periods.
An interesting example is the discussion, by Otto Pettersson, of the effects of long-range fluctuations in the tidegenerating force: this memoir was published about 1914, but has only recently become available to English readers.
Its fluctuations in value have been not only a serious inconvenience in commercial transactions, but also the cause of heavy loss to the people.
The quadrupling of the intensity in passing outwards from the edge of the shadow is, however, accompanied by fluctuations giving rise to bright and dark bands.
The amplitude is thus subject to fluctuations, which increase as the shadow is approached.
In particular the fluctuations of the pulse in fevers and inflammations were better understood, and accurately registered; and we can scarcely realize now that before Harvey the time of the pulse seems not to have been counted by the watch.
Thus the defects, whether of this secretion or of that, and again of motor activity, the state of the valvular junctions, the volume of the cavities, and their position in the abdomen, may be ascertained, and dealt with as far as may be; so that, although the fluctuations of chemical digestion are still very obscure, the application of remedies after a mere traditional routine is no longer excusable.
Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely.
Although there were fluctuations in the numbers at different periods there is evidence to show that on the average the amount of forty to fifty thousand fixed by Dr Creighton for the years between 1189 and 1509 is fairly correct.
As a result of its relatively great depth there are seldom any great fluctuations of level in this lake due to wind disturbance, but the lake follows the general rule of the Great Lakes (q.v.) of seasonal and annual variation.
In any case, the alterations in level appear to be merely periodic, and due to fluctuations in rainfall, and do not point, as some have supposed, to a secular drying up of the lake.
Cockerell, including the plants of its shores, the insects which lived upon them, the fluctuations of its level, and many other characteristics of this extinct water body, now in the heart of the arid region of the Rocky Mountains.
The total output of the country rose from a value of $215,000 ifl 1882 to one of $54,640,374 ifl 1908, with several fluctuations up and down in that interval.
Thus, whatever the cause of the decline in the price of wheat may be, it cannot be attributed solely to the fall in the rate of Wheat Prices The following figures show the fluctuations from year to year of English wheat, chiefly according to a record published by Mr T.
In 1906, after considerable fluctuations during the interval, the total number that entered was 4623 vessels of 2,372,551 tons; of these, 935 of 1,002,119 tons were foreign; British ships representing about half this tonnage.
While the tables indicate the fluctuations of supply they show generally that Asiatic countries, in addition to supplying the necessities for their home trade, export to Europe and America about threefifths of the whole of the silk consumed in Western manufactures.
A cable sent to India in the evening may bring a reply next morning, and in these days of rapid cotton fluctuations mail advices are confined mainly to general discussion, hypothetical inquiry, advice, admonition and complaint.
It is, of course, the verbal bargain that binds, and large transactions are commonly completed without witnesses, though before the contract or memorandum of sale passes the fluctuations of the market may have made the bargain, to one side or the other, a very bad one.
Even in the existing versions of the letters, translated from the lost originals and retranslated from this translation of a text which was probably destroyed in 1603 by order of King James on his accession to the English throne - even in these possibly disfigured versions, the fiery pathos of passion, the fierce and piteous fluctuations of spirit between love and hate, hope and rage and jealousy, have an eloquence apparently beyond the imitation or invention of art (see Casket Letters 1).
(See Rape.) The oil yielded by these seeds is, in physical and chemical properties, practically the same, the range of fluctuations not being greater than would be found in the oil of any specific seed under similar varying conditions of production; the winter varieties of all the seeds are more productive than the summer varieties.
In addition to these periodical fluctuations, there are also seasonal oscillations, the level being lowest in January and highest in the summer.
The dotted line represents the average monthly consumption in each year; the fluctuations in price of good sound China congou are traced by the black line; and the years in which reduced customs duty came into operation are indicated along the base.
It has constant steady fluctuations, rising and falling some 8 ft.