The purpose was to decrease the floods which sometimes threaten to entirely submerge the city.
During floods they pour over their banks upon the surrounding valleys, by a thousand channels which interlace and establish communication between the main streams. After numerous bifurcations they find their way into the sea by three principal mouths.
The greatest proportionate deficiency, however, is observable in the arenaceous region between the Danube and Theiss, where for the most part only periodical floods occur.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
For the next sixty years an urgent question was the prevention of floods in the capital.
The miasmatic exhalations caused by the sun playing on stagnant waters after the floods give rise to the "Sennar fever," which drives even the natives from the plains to the southern uplands.
The abundant records by the Mississippi River Commission and the United States Weather Bureau (by which accurate and extremely useful predictions of floods in the lower river course are made, on the basis of the observed rise in the tributaries) demonstrate a num~ bar of interesting features, of which the chief are as follows: the fall of the river is significantly steepened and its velocity isaccelerated down stream from the point of highest rise; conversely, the fall and the velocity are both diminished up stream from the same point.
The exiles dwelt at Tell-abib (" Hill of the flood "), one of the mounds or ruins made by the great floods that devastated the country,1 near the " river " Chebar (Kebar), probably a large canal not far south of the city of Babylon.
But he was a profoundly interested observer of affairs at home and among 1 The Assyrian term abubu is used of the great primeval deluge (in the Gilgamesh epic), and also of the local floods common in the country.
The manufacturing and wholesale districts are for the most part confined to the "bottoms" (which have suffered much from floods) between Third Street and the river, although many of these interests are now on the higher levels or in the suburbs; the principal retail houses are on the higher levels N.
The Alps and Pyrenees are in large part deforested, but reafforestation with a view to minimizing the effects of avalanches and sudden floods is continually in progress.
It is this tropical downpour that fills and floods the rivers flowing into Lake Eyre and those falling into the Darling on its right bank.
The Arno is navigable for barges as far as Florence; but it is liable to sudden floods, and brings down with it large quantities of earth and stones, so that it requires careful regulation.
It received a colony under Augustus, but appears to have suffered much from floods of the river Clanis.
But a little consideration showed that, though Lamarck had seized what, as far as it goes, is a true cause of modification, it is a cause the actual effects of which are wholly inadequate to account for any considerable modification in animals, and which can have no influence at all in the vegetable world; and probably nothing contributed so much to discredit evolution, in the early part of the 29th century, as the floods of easy ridicule which were poured upon this part of Lamarck's speculation.
Don Benito is a thriving and comparatively modern town; for it dates only from the 15th century, when it was founded by refugees from Don Llorente, who deserted their own town owing to the danger of floods from the Guadiana.
They freeze in winter and dry up in summer, and most of them are navigable only during the spring floods; even the Volga becomes so shallow during the hot season that none but boats of light draught can pass over its shoals.
Put comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.
The country was also visited by a succession of famines and floods, and in 1348 the Black Death swept over Europe like a terrible scourge.
Much of the grain was never harvested, whilst owing mainly to the excessive floods there commenced an outbreak of liver-rot in sheep, due to the ravages of the fluke parasite.
The frost broke at the end of February 1709, and then the spring floods put an end to all active operations till May, when Charles began the siege of the fortress of Poltava, which he wished to make a base for subsequent operations while awaiting reinforcements from Sweden and Poland.
" Accidents " here mean ordinary accidents only, such as hail, lightning or frost, and the lessee will not be answerable for loss caused by extraordinary accidents such as war or floods, unless he has, been made liable for all accidents, foreseen or unforeseen (Art.
Formerly, when floods resulted from this obstruction, the townsfolk of Helston acquired the right of clearing a passage through it by presenting leathern purses containing three halfpence to the lord of the manor.
The city itself is subject to disastrous floods, sometimes leading to loss of life as well as damage to property, as in the great flood of 1889.
It has been so useful in relieving the Mississippi of floods, that the Red river may possibly be permanently diverted again into the bayou artificially.
The danger of floods and the difficulty of drainage make the extension of the practice unprofitable, and the opening of the prairies has made it unnecessary.
About the time of the maxima there must be a longer tidal range (that is, a greater rise and fall than the average); the difference between neap tides and spring tides will also be increased, and as results of these conditions there must be great tidal floods breaking over lowlying coasts and producing extensive denudation.
There is evidence that, towards the close of the mediaeval period, great storms and tidal inundations occurred on the shores of the North Sea and Baltic, and in the course of these floods, culminating in 1297, the Zuider Zee was formed from a lake that existed in its neighbourhood, by the breaking down of dykes.
During the rains the Brahmaputra floods hundreds of square miles of country, reaching a height of 30 to 40 ft.
It is liable to floods, when it becomes impassable for weeks.
There is usually a short dry season on the upper Amazon in January and February, which causes two annual floods - that of November - December, and the great flood of March - June.
Occasionally, the whole country suffers much from drought; but disastrous floods not unfrequently occur, particularly in the spring, when the beds of the rivers are inadequate to contain the increased volume of water caused by the rapid melting of the snows on the Carpathians.
There are numerous lagoons in the Llano districts caused by the periodical floods of the rivers, and extensive esteros and cienagas, in part due to the same causes, but these either dry up in the dry season or are greatly reduced in area.
Among the worst floods were those of the years 1 774, 1 799, 1815, 1830, 1845, 1862, 1890 and 1909.
Mines may become flooded by the inrush of surface waters in times of great rainfall or sudden floods, or by the undermining of surface waters.
Floods must be provided with channels of sufficient size to carry them safely past the mine openings, and intercepting ditches should be excavated for this purpose, and dams and embankments constructed to divert the flood waters.
The eastern portion of the district is at a level sufficiently low to benefit by the floods of the Indus.
Its mountains are insufficient in elevation and extent to attract their full share of the monsoon rains, which fall so abundantly on the Abyssinian highlands on the other side of the Red Sea; for this reason Arabia has neither lakes nor forests to control the water-supply and prevent its too rapid dissipation, and the rivers are mere torrent beds sweeping down occasionally in heavy floods, but otherwise dry.
Occasionally two or three years may pass without any rainfall; then may come floods after a heavy downfall of a few weeks.
The water-demon Grendel and the dragon (probably), by whom Beowulf is mortally wounded, have been supposed to represent the powers of autumn and darkness, the floods which at certain seasons overflow the low-lying countries on the coast of the North Sea and sweep away all human habitations; Beowulf is the hero of spring and light who, after overcoming the spirit of the raging waters, finally succumbs to the dragon of approaching winter.
The prophecy which Burns put into the mouth of the venerable structure came true in 1877, when the newer bridge yielded to floods and had to be rebuilt (1879); and the older structure itself was closed for public safety in 1904.
The rains descend in floods upon the heights; but in the vicinity of Tasisudon, the capital, they are moderate; there are frequent showers, but nothing that can be compared to the tropical rains of Bengal.
The entire plain was well adapted for pasturage and corn-growing, but was liable to floods owing to the lack of free outlets for its water-courses.
Otkar continues to answer " Not yet," adding at last " When thou shalt see the fields bristling with an iron harvest, and the Po and the Ticino swollen with sea-floods, inundating the walls of the city with iron billows, then shall Karl be nigh at hand."
The Vistula, here of great width, and subject to destructive floods, enters the province near Thorn, and flowing north in a valley which divides the plateau, enters Danzig Bay by a large delta, the Werder.
The plain is for the most part sandy and almost barren, subject to heavy floods in the rainy season, and to severe drought in the dry weather.
Above the bar at its mouth; during Cartagena's decline this was allowed to fill up; it was reopened in 1846 for a short time and then was obstructed again by river floods; but in 1881 it was reopened for steam navigation.
There are no permanent rivers; but during the rainy season, from August to October, heavy floods convert the water-courses in the hollows of the mountains into broad and rapid streams. Numerous wells supply the wants of the people and their cattle.
During the spring floods there is a rise of 16 or even 20 ft., and not only the island but the country along the left bank and thelower grounds on the right bank are laid under water.
1 The most destructive floods have been those of 1832, 1847, 1883, 1884 and 1907; the highest stage of the water before 1904 was 71 ft.
Floods are of common occurrence, and descend very suddenly.
American, and later Canadian, capital and enterprise have also been very largely concerned in the development of the country; and its progress was not permanently interfered with by the great earthquakes of April 1907 and July 1909 at Acapulco, and the floods in August 1909 at Monterey.
The ground should be kept free of weeds by frequent hoeing and, if not subject to periodical alluvial floods, manured yearly.
The cultivation of osiers is attended with many disturbing causes - winter floods, spring frosts, ground vermin and insect pests of various kinds, sometimes working great havoc to the crop.
The floods caused by the Husur were frequent and destructive, on one occasion sweeping away the palace terrace at Nineveh and exposing the tombs of the kings, on another isolating Khorsabad.
318 ff.) which controlled the floods and filled the ditches and moats of Nineveh.
The floods of the Mississippi usually occur in spring or aummer; Owing to the great size of the drainage basin, it seldom happens that the three upper tributaries are in flood at the same time; the coincident occurrence of floods in only two tributaries is of serious import in the lower river, which rises 30, 40, or occasionally 50 ft.
The study of it shed floods of light upon all church questions.
At the same time, any excessive local rainfall is productive of difficulty and danger from the floods of liquid mud and loose boulders which sweep like an avalanche down the hill sides.
Across at the widest point and yet showing ridges capped with perpetual snows, the rivers, large or small, are mountain torrents, now swollen floods, anon half dry.
Here the less uplifted blocks are now heavily aggraded with waste from the dissected ranges: the waste takes the form of huge alluvial fans, formed chiefly by occasional boulder-bearing floods from the mountains; each fan heads in a ravine at the mountain base, and becomes laterally confluent with adjacent fans as it stretches several miles forward with decreasing slope and increasing fineness of material.
The trestles of this weir are, as usual, hinged to the apron, so that in flood-time they can be completely lowered into a recess across the apron by means of chains actuated by a winch, leaving the channel perfectly open for the discharge of floods and for the passage of vessels when the lock is submerged.
Such knowledge floods the soul unseen with a soundless tidal wave of deepening thought.