In or near Iioo B.C., Chou Kung, an able mathematician, determined with surprising accuracy the obliquity of the ecliptic; but his attempts to estimate the sun's distance failed hopelessly as being grounded on belief in the flatness of the earth.
Flatness and lack of deep shadows, owing to the impossibility of obtaining heavy cornices in that material, mark the style.
The exteriors of the north Italian Gothic churches are characterized by the flatness of the roof; the treatment of the west facade as a mere screen wall, masking the true lines of the aisle roofs; the great circular window in the west front for lighting the nave; the absence of pinnacles owing to the unimportance of the buttresses; the west-end porches with columns resting on lions or other animals.
A main building with wings; the large amount of window space; the comparative flatness of the façades; the employment of a cornice to each storey; the effect of light and shade given by the balconies; and in churches by the circular pediments on the facades.
The qualities, too have to be considered - the fulness of one, the flatness of the other, or the coarseness or fineness of the furs.
The flatness of faces of stone or rock (both granite and limestone) was tested by placing a true-plane trial plate, smeared with red ochre, against the dressed surface, as in modern engineer.
The error of flatness of the joints from a straight line and a true square is but thth in.
Above sea-level, the general flatness being only broken by a small chain of hills, running in a north-westerly direction between Amraoti and Chandor, with an average height from 400 to 500 ft.
The explanation is to be found in the extreme flatness of the country and the absence of trees or vegetation.
The cheek-bones are high; the nose inclined to flatness; the mouth thin-lipped and refined among patricians, and wide and full-lipped among plebeians; the ears are small, and the brow fairly well developed.
(4) After eliminating the aberration on the axis, coma and astigmatism, the relation for the flatness of the field in the third order is expressed by the " Petzval equation," I 1 = o, where is the radius of a refracting surface, n and n' the refractive indices of the neighbouring media, and / the sign of summation for all refracting surfaces.
When the fibres were far apart at the top a similar flatness was obtained in the curve with the quadrants about i mm.