The social environment of Christians may be inferred from the canons prohibiting marriage and other intercourse with Jews, pagans and heretics, closing the offices of flamen and duumvir to Christians, forbidding all contact with idolatry and likewise participation in pagan festivals and public games.
Later, they were used to denote the attendants on certain priests and priestesses, especially the flamen dialis and flaminica and the curiones.
According to the legend, her worship was instituted by Titus Tatius, and her priest, the flamen Floralis, by Numa.
The flamen on the Ara Pacis), and was also adorned with an ivory crescent (lunula).
The old priesthood, and in particular the flaminia, came to be regarded as tiresome restrictions on political life and were neglected: from 87 to II B.C. the office of flamen Dialis was vacant.
No doubt he also did much generally to revive the ancient cults: he rebuilt, as he tells us himself, eighty-two temples which had fallen into disrepair, he re-established the old priesthoods, filling once more the office of flamen Dialis and reviving such bodies as the Sodales Titii (see Titus Tatius) and the Arval Brothers; but the new revival attached itself primarily to these four cults, and their tendency was unmistakable.
Caesar was at once marked out for high distinction, being created flamen Dialis or priest of Jupiter.
Fasces were given to the Flamen Dialis and (after 42 B.C.) even to the Vestals.
In his time the college consisted of a master (magister), a vice-master (promagister), a flamen, and a praetor, with eight ordinary members, attended by various servants, and in particular by four chorus boys, sons of senators, having both parents alive.
The election of members was by co-optation on the motion of the president, who, with a flamen, was himself elected for one year.
In the Comitium was an "area Volcani," also called "Volcanal"; and here on the 23rd of August (Volcanalia) the Flamen Volcanalis sacrificed, and the heads of Roman families threw into the fire small fish, which the Tiber fishermen sold on the spot.
This flamen also sacrificed on the 1st of May to Maia, who in an old prayer formula (Gellius 13.23) was coupled with Volcanus as Maia Volcani.
Both consuls were anxious to obtain the command against him; Crassus was pontifex maximus, and Flaccus a flamen of Mars.
FLAMEN (from flare, " to blow up" the altar fire), a Roman sacrificial priest.
The highest in rank were the flamen Dialis, flamen Martialis and flamen Quirinalis, who were always selected from among the patricians.
The official insignia of the flamen Dialis (of Jupiter), the highest of these priests, were the white cap (pileus, albogalerus), at the top of which was an olive branch and a woollen thread; the laena, a thick woollen toga praetexta woven by his wife; the sacrificial knife; and a rod to keep the people from him when on his way to offer sacrifice.
The flamen Dialis was not allowed to leave the city for a single night, to ride or even touch a horse (a restriction which incapacitated him for the consulship), to swear an oath, to look at an army, to touch anything unclean, or to look upon people working.
We may mention, as distinct from the above, the flamen curialis, who assisted the curio, the priest who attended to the religious affairs of each curia; the flamens of various sacerdotal corporations, such as the Arval Brothers; the flamen Augustalis, who superintended the worship of the emperor in the provinces.
More ancient evidence is supplied by an inscription found at Aquinum, recording, so far as it has been deciphered, the dedication of an altar to Ceres by a Iunius Iuvenalis, tribune of the first cohort of Dalmatians, duumvir quinquennalis, and flamen Divi Vespasiani, a provincial magistrate whose functions corresponded to those of the censor at Rome.
Flamen divi Vespasiani I vovit dedicav[it] que I sua pec., " Corp. inscr.
The Flamen Dialis, each of the Vestals, the magister vicorum (overseer of the sections into which the city was divided) were also accompanied by lictors.
Mai., and consisted in a procession leaving Rome by the Flaminian gate, and proceeding by way of the Milvian bridge to a sanctuary at the 5th milestone of the Via Claudia, where the flamen quirinalis sacrificed a dog and a sheep to avert blight (robigo) from the crops (Fasti praenestini, C.T.L.T., p. 317).
On the former date, the flamen Quirinalis, assisted by the vestals, offered sacrifice, and the pontifices presided at horse and chariot races in the circus.