Apart from the fjords and lakes the chief beauties of the Alps are glaciers and waterfalls.
The presence of the sea in these fjords is an accident.
- The coasts of Greenland are for the most part deeply indented with fjords, being intensely glaciated.
Or more, and descends gradually by extremely gentle slopes towards the coasts or the bottom of the fjords on all sides, discharging a great part of its yearly drainage or surplus of precipitation in the form of icebergs in the fjords, the so-called ice-fjords, which are numerous both on the west and on the east coast.
Hitherto marine conditions were confined to the littoral; in Middle Miocene times (Helvetian) the sea broke in and spread in a south-east direction in the form of long ramified fjords but did not extend as far as the Sahara.
The Gulf of St Lawrence with its much indented shores and the coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick supply endless harbours, the northern ones closed by ice in the winter, but the southern ones open all the year round; and on the Pacific British Columbia is deeply fringed with islands and fjords with well-sheltered harbours everywhere, in strong contrast with the unbroken shore of the United States to the south.
In the Cordilleran region on the other hand the lakes are long, narrow and deep, in reality sections of mountain valleys occupied by fresh water, just as the fjords of the adjoining coast are valleys occupied by the sea.
The Pacific border of the coast range of British Columbia is ragged with fjords and channels, where large steamers may go 50 or Too m.
Aalesund is adjacent to the JOrund and Geiranger fjords, frequented by tourists.
Many local steamers penetrate the fjords, touching at every village and gaard.
South of the Toro there are no large rivers on this coast, but the narrow fjords penetrate deeply into the mountains and bring away the drainage of their snow-capped, storm-swept elevations.
Iceland is a plateau or tableland, built up of volcanic rocks of older and younger formation, and pierced on all sides by fjords and valleys.
The existing land features, with the fjords, are due to ice erosion in the glacial period.'
In the neighbourhood is a beautiful tract of country, rich in beech forests and fjords, known as "the Holstein Switzerland," largely frequented in summer by the Hamburgers.
Abrupt walls overlook the Pacific, and great longitudinal and transversal channels and fjords run right through the heart of the range, cutting it generally in a direction more or less oblique to its axis, the result of movements of the earth's crust.
While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm.
In some parts the interior ice-covering extends down to the outer coast, while in other parts its margin is situated more inland, and the ice-bare coast-land is deeply intersected by fjords extending far into the interior, where they are blocked by enormous glaciers or " ice-currents " from the interior ice-covering which discharge masses of s"aefel's0° icebergs into them.
The result is that the east coast of Greenland has the largest system of typical fjords known on the earth's surface.
The American coasts are for the most part mountainous and unbroken, the chief indentation being the Gulf of California; but the general type is departed from in the extreme north and south, the southern coast of South America consisting of bays and fjords with scattered islands, while the coast of Alaska is similarly broken in the south and becomes low and swampy towards the north.
(extremes), with its fantastic coast-line indented by fjords and projecting into long spits or promontories, may be considered as the nucleus of the kingdom, inasmuch as it contains the capital, Copenhagen, and such important towns as Roskilde, Slagelse, Korsor, Naestved and Elsinore (Helsingor).
Many of them are prolonged under the sea; in other words, the narrow deep fjords are seaward continuations of the glens.
These alluvial terraces form a strip of low fertile land between the edge of the sea and the rising ground of the interior, and among the western fjords sometimes supply the only arable soil in their neighbourhood, their flat green surfaces presenting a strong contrast to the brown and barren moors that rise from them.
The coast is indented by numerous deep bays and fjords; the Ise Fjord in the north, with its branches the Roskilde Fjord on the east and the Lamme Fjord on the west, penetrates inland for about 25 m.
The scenery, especially in the neighbourhood of the fjords, is pleasant, lacking the barrenness of some portions of the kingdom.
The coast of Sweden is not indented with so many or so deep fjords as that of Norway, nor do the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic and the Cattegat share in the peculiar Coast..
Off the south-east coast the place of the skdrgard is in a measure taken by the long narrow island of Oland, but north of this the skrgard begins to widen, and the most considerable fjords are found, such as Bravik, which penetrates the land for 35 m.
A peculiar network of fjords and connecting channels terminating inland in a peculiarly shaped body of water with long, widely branching arms, called Worsley Sound, Obstruction Sound and Last Hope Inlet, covers an extensive area between the 51st and 53rd parallels, and extends nearly to the Argentine frontier.
Four fjords were selected in the south coast of Norway in proximity to the hatchery, and the usual number of fry (10-30 millions) were planted in the spring in alternate fjords, leaving the intermediate fjords unsupplied.
The relative number of young cod in the various fjords was then carefully investigated throughout the succeeding summer and autumn months.
But their abundance was equally striking in other fjords in which no fry had been planted, while in 1905 all the fjords were deficient in young cod whether they had been planted with fry from the hatchery or not.
Extremity there are a number of fjords and the wide bay of Sakhanikha.
Vigo Bay, one of the finest of the Galician fjords, extends inland for 19 m., and is sheltered by low mountains and by the islands (Islas de Cies, ancient Insulae Siccae) at its mouth.
The inter-insular straits are carried up into the shore as fjords heading in rivers and glaciers.
The boundary dispute involved the interpretation of the words, quoted above, in the treaties of 1825 and 1867 defining the boundary of the Russian (later American) possessions, and also the determining of the location of Portland Canal, and the question whether the coastal girdle should cross or pass around the heads of the fjords of the coast.
The fjords of the district include the imposing Beierenfjord, the Saltenfjord, and the Skjerstadfjord, at the narrow mouths of which, between islands, a remarkable cataract (Saltstrbm) is formed at the turn of the tide.
Deep valleys, which seem to be only the prolongation of fjords, penetrate into the chain in the southern slope where exist several harbours on which settlements have been founded.
In other cases small surveys among these fjords have shown that several of the larger islands are cut by channels which separate them into smaller ones, while elsewhere the low valleys which unite the mountains and hills are the result of post-Glacial deposits that have filled part of the former channels, these islands being the summits of an old continuous half-submerged mountain chain.
The Scandinavian portion of Lapland presents the usual characteristics of the mountain plateau of that peninsula - on the west side the bold headlands and fjords, deeply-grooved valleys and glaciers of Norway, on the east the long mountain lakes and great lake-fed rivers of Sweden.
The heads of the Swedish valleys are connected with the Norwegian fjords by passes generally traversed only by tracks; though from the head of the Ume a driving road crosses to Mo on Ranen Fjord.
And its breadth 194 m., the shape being a rough oval, broken at the north-west, where a peninsula, diversified by a great number of fjords, projects from the main portion of the island.
The fjords and glens which cut into it are shut in by precipitous walls of basalt, which plainly shows that they have been formed by erosion through the mass of the plateau.
The only inhabited districts are the shores of the fjords, where grass grows capable of supporting sheep; but a large proportion of the population gain their livelihood by fishing.
Separated from one another by rocky promontories, appear to owe their origin to subsidences of the surface; whereas the fjords of the north-west peninsula, which make excellent harbours, and those of the east coast seem to be the result chiefly of erosion.
The sea pierces the islands in deep fjords, or separates them by narrow inlets through which tidal currents set with great violence, at speeds up to seven or eight knots an hour; and, as communications are maintained almost wholly by boat, the natives have need of expert watermanship. There are several lakes in which trout are abundant, and char also occur; the largest is Sdrvaag Lake in Vaagd, which is close to the sea, and discharges into it by a sheer fall of about 160 ft.
Here the ice converges into the valleys and moves with increasing velocity in the form of glaciers into the fjords, where they break off as icebergs.
They are not too well served with harbours, except along Cook Strait, in Banks Peninsula, and by the grand but commercially useless fjords of the south-west.
A few soundings made outside this coast seem to indicate that the fjords continue as deep submarine valleys far out into the sea.
The coast-line is extremely irregular, and the fjords, at least on the north, east and south, form a series of well-sheltered harbours.
East Falkland is almost bisected by two deep fjords, Choiseul and Brenton Sounds, which leave the northern and southern portions connected only by an isthmus a mile and a half wide.
Franz Josef Fjord, with its branch King Oscar Fjord, communicating with Davy's Sound, forms a system of fjords on a similar scale.
Other settlers followed and in a few years two colonies had been formed, one called Osterbygd in the present district of Julianehaab comprising later about 190 farms, and another called Vesterbygd farther north on the west coast in the present district of Godthaab, comprising later about 90 farms. Numerous ruins in the various fjords of these two districts indicate now where these colonies were.
Amongst the best known of the furrows of the continental shelf are the Cape Breton Deep, in the Bay of Biscay, the Hudson Furrow, southward of New York, the so-called Congo Canon, the Swatch of No Ground off the Ganges delta, the Bottomless Pit off the Niger delta, and numerous similar furrows on the west coast of North America and outside the fjords of Norway, Iceland and the west of Scotland, as well as in the.
The Persian Gulf nowhere exceeds 50 fathoms, the southern part of Hudson .Bay does not exceed Too fathoms except at one spot, though in the less-known fjords of the northern part depths up to 200 fathoms have been reported.
The coast-line of Melville Bay (the northern part of the west coast) is to some degree an exception, though the fjords may here be somewhat filled with glaciers, and, for another example, it may be noted that Peary observed a marked contrast on the north coast.
As a whole the coasts are unusually mountainous, and Greenland forms in this respect an interesting exception, as there is no other known land of such a size so filled along its coasts on all sides with high mountains and deep fjords and valleys.
A Danish coloni in Greenland might seem to many not to be :a cheerful place at best; though in the long summer days they would certainly find some of those on the southern fjords comparatively pleasant.
In the beginning of the 12th century Greenland got its own bishop, who resided at Garolar, near the present Eskimo station Igoliko, on an isthmus between two fjords, Igaliksfjord (the old Einarsfjord) and Tunugdliarfik (the old Eriksfjord), inside the present colony Julianehaab.
The various ridges and mountain masses are separated by steep-sided valleys, which run down to the sea, forming deep fjords, so that no part of the interior is more than 12 m.
These fjords are very deep; the greatest depth found by Ryder in Scoresby Sound was 300 fathoms, but there are certainly still greater depths; like the Norwegian fjords they have, however, probably all of them, a threshold or sill, with shallow water, near their mouths.
Devonian rocks are believed to occur in Igaliko and Tunnudiorbik Fjords, in S.W.
All coasts in the world which are much intersected by deep fjords have, with very few exceptions, a western exposure, e.g.