The great interest in connexion with a dwarf West African race of elephant is in relation to the fossil pigmy elephants of the limestone fissures and caves of Malta and Cyprus.
Such a determination is, however, extremely hazardous, even if it be admitted that the remains of cats from the rock-fissures of Gibraltar pertain to Felis ocreata.
The bones of Pleistocene mammals, the rhinoceros, mammoth, bison, hyaena, &c., have been found at numerous places, often in caves and fissures in the limestones, e.g.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
It has been suggested that these spurs represent the sites of vents or fissures of eruption.
They are the head slits cephalic fissures, " Kopfspalten ") so characteristic of this subdivision (figs.
From these structural and palaeontological evidences, geologists suppose that the formation of the cave was carried on simultaneously with the excavation of the valley; that the small streams, flowing down the upper ramifications of the valley, entered the western opening of the cave, and traversing the fissures in the limestone, escaped by the lower openings in the chief valley; and that the rounded pebbles found in the shingle bed were carried in by these streams. It would be only at times of drought that the cave was frequented by animals, a theory which explains the small quantity of animal remains in the shingle.
Minute cracks are sometimes produced by the contraction; they are often more or less straight, but in other cases a very perfect system of rounded fissures arises.
Certain varieties, notably some from Russia, possess a beautiful metallic sheen, referable to the presence of either microscopic fissures or enclosures.
The larch remains free from parasitism so long as its covering is intact, but as soon as this is punctured by insects, or its continuity interfered with by cracks or fissures, the Peziza penetrates, and before long brings about the destruction of the branch.
The shape of the hills and ridges is necessarily influenced by the inclination of the strata, by the relative hardness of different rock-beds, and by the presence of folds and fissures and other lines of weakness.
It was in this lofty rock-girt hollow that the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Claudius Pulcher; he escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater-rim.
The deposits near Caylus and in Quercy occupy fissures and pockets in Jurassic limestone, and have yielded a remarkable assemblage of the relics of Tertiary mammals and other fossils.
Valley gravels .border the Thames, and Pleistocene mammalia have been found in fissures in the Hythe beds at Ightham, where ancient stone implements are common.
Prairie fires or spontaneous combustion have ignited many coal seams. Some have already burnt out; others still emit smoke and sulphurous fumes from the crevices in the hillsides, and through the fissures may be seen the glowing coal and rock.
The volcanic fissures that allowed of the upwelling of basalt are represented by numerous dykes, many cutting the earlier lava-flows as well as all the beds below them.
The portal fissure has been slightly opened up to show the vessels passing through it; the other fissures are represented in their natural condition - closed.
But beyond the sphere of irrigation, where the land is dependent on the rainfall, there is much rough stony ground broken by great fissures cut by flood-water from the border hills.
The free acid is found native in certain volcanic districts such as Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and Nevada, issuing mixed with steam from fissures in the ground; it is also found as a constituent of many minerals (borax, boracite, boronatrocalcite and colemanite).
In some places the fissures open directly into the air, but in other parts of the district they are covered by small muddy lakes (lagoni).
Artificial soffioni are sometimes prepared by boring through the rock until the fissures are reached, and the water so obtained is occasionally sufficiently impregnated with boric acid to be evaporated directly.
It likes fibrous peat in fissures of the rocks.
At the close of the Eocene period great eruptions of augite-andesite took place from two fissures which ran along the west coast.
The present volcanoes lie along a line (with offshoots) which runs parallel to the west coast, but some distance to the east of the fissures from which the early Tertiary lavas were poured.
With the true pipes are associated dykes and fissures also filled with diamantiferous blue ground.
The surface of this table-land slopes from west to east, as indicated by the direction of the drainage of the country, - the great rivers, the Cauvery, Godavari, Kistna and Pennar, though deriving their sources from the base of the Western Ghats, all finding their way into the Bay of Bengal through fissures in the Eastern Ghats.
The limestones of which they are mostly composed act like a sponge, absorbing the rain-water through their innumerable pores and fissures, and thus storing it up in the interior, afterwards to allow it to well forth in springs at various elevations lower down.
Below the surface, whence the water rises through natural fissures or artificial boreholes to the surface, and sometimes to several feet above it.
The water from the melted snow forms a small lake at the bottom of the crater, from which it filters through fissures to the heated rocks below and thence escapes as steam or through other fissures to the mineral springs at the mountain's base.
Some observers report that steam is to be seen rising from fissures in the bottom of the crater, and all are united in speaking of the fumes of burning sulphur that rise from its depths.
The eruptions were connected with innumerable fissures up which the basalt rose and from numerous points on which it flowed out at the surface.
These fissures with the basalt that solidified in them now form the vast assemblage of dykes which cross Scotland, the north of England and the north of Ireland.
When there are fissures radiating in several directions it is called "star shake."
Almost enclosing it on three sides are rose-coloured mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures, and lined with rockcut tombs in the form of towers.
It used to be said that, if this narrow passage were blocked up, escape would be impossible; but an intricate web of fissures, called the Corkscrew, has been discovered, by means of which a good climber, ascending only a few hundred feet, lands 1000 yds.
The so-called "iron roses" (Eisenrosen) of Switzerland are rosette-like aggregates of hexagonal tabular crystals, from fissures in the gneissose rocks of the Alps.
This change of direction corresponds to a curve in the line of volcanic fissures which have contributed their products to the building of the islands.
Characteristic of the country are the enormous fissures which divide it, formed in the course of ages by the erosive action of water.
The whole region abounds with fissures from which steam highly charged with hydrochloric acid is continually issuing, and in many places boiling water is found at a very few feet below the surface.
A large region was sunken, enormous fissures were opened in the earth, the surface soil was displaced 3 In 1804, the District of Louisiana, in the administrative system of the Territory of Indiana; in 1805, an independent government, renamed the Territory of Louisiana; in 1812, the Territory of Missouri; in 1816, another grade of territorial government.
Mountain areas of io,000 acres and upwards, largely covered with moorland, upon nearly imper meable rocks with few water-bearing fissures, yield in temperate climates, towards the end of the driest seasons, and therefore solely from underground, between a fifth and .a quarter of a cubic foot per second per 1000 acres.
On the other hand, some rocks in mountain districts, notably the granites, owing to the great quantity of water stored in their numerous fissures or joints, commonly yield a much higher proportion of so-called dry weather flow.
In the New Red Sandstone, the Greensand and the upper Chalk, we find the opposite extremes; while the igneous rocks are for the most part only permeable in virtue of the open fissures they contain.
Wherever, below the surface, there are pores or open fissures, water derived from rainfall is (except in the rare cases of displacement by gas) found at levels above the sea determined by the resistance of solids to its passage towards some neighbouring sea, lake or watercourse.
They hold water like a sponge, but part with it under pressure to fissures by which they are intersected, and, in the case of the Upper Chalk, to ducts following beds of flints.
This is explained by the fact that the Chalk fissures are almost invariably rounded and enlarged by the erosion of carbonic acid carried from the surface by the water passing through them.
These fissures take the place of the streams in an impermeable area, and those beneath the valleys must obviously be called upon to discharge more water from the surface, and thus be brought in contact with more carbonic acid, than similar fissures elsewhere.
In practice it is usual in chalk formations to imitate artificially the action of such underground watercourses, by driving from the well small tunnels, or " adits " as they are called, below the water-level, to intercept fissures and water-bearing beds, and thus to extend the collecting area.
With the exception of the Red Marls forming the upper part of the Keuper, most of the New Red Sandstone is permeable, and some parts contain, when saturated, even more water than solid chalk; but, just as in the case of the chalk, a well or borehole in the sandstone yields very little water unless it strikes a fissure; hence, in New Red Sandstone, also, it is a common thing to form underground chambers or adits in search of additional fissures, and sometimes to sink many vertical boreholes with the same object in view.
Of course, no open fissures, and even if adits could be usefully employed, the cost of constructing and lining them through the loose sand would be prohibitive.