Fischer and E.
In 1894 and 1895, Fischer, in a remarkable series of papers on the influence of molecular structure upon the action of the enzyme, showed that various species of yeast behave very differently towards solutions of sugars.
Fischer next suggested that enzymes can only hydrolyse those sugars which possess a molecular structure in harmony with their own, or to use his ingenious analogy, "the one may be said to fit into the other as a key fits into a lock."
Fischer found that the enzyme "invertase," which is present in yeast, attacks methyl-d-glucoside but not methyl-l-glucoside.
The remarkable discoveries of Fischer and Buchner to a great extent confirm Traube's views, and reconcile Liebig's and Pasteur's theories.
Fischer, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3759).
Fischer); or from 2.4.
Fischer, Cardinal Consalvi (Mainz, 1899); Dr Fredrik Nielsen, bishop of Aarhus, Hist.
Von Kirchmann under the title Philosophische Werke (with biography, &c., Berlin, 1868; 2nd ed, 1882-1891), by Kuno Fischer, Die Hauptschriften zur Grundlegung seiner Philosophie (1863), with introduction by Ludwig Fischer (1892).
Joerges, Die Lehre von den Empfindungen bei Descartes (1901); Kuno Fischer, Hist.
Fischer, ibid., 1896, 29, p. 1874).
To Spinoza (as Kuno Fischer observes) man differs from the rest of nature in the degree only and not in the kind of his powers.
Der Pflanzen; Fischer, Forest Protection, iv.
Xxiv.; Fischer, Fixirung, Fdrbung and Bau des Protoplasmas (Jena, 1899); Flemming, Morphologic der Zelle, Ergebnisse der Anatomic und Entwickelungsgeschichte (i 896); Gardiner, The 1-listology of the Cell-Wall, with Special Reference to the iVlode of Connection of Cells, Proc. Roy.
Ruff and Fischer (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 418) did not appear to exist, but E.
P. 46 seq.; Fischer, Comment.
In 1806 Fischer de Waldheim, in his Tableaux syn- optiques de zoognosie (p. 181), quoting Nieremberg, extended his figure of speech, and, while justly deprecating the notion that the series of forms belonging to any particular group of creatures - the Mammalia was that whence he took his instance - could be placed in a straight line, imagined the various genera to be arrayed in a series of contiguous circles around Man as a centre.
Fischer among the products of hydrolysis of proteids.
Fischer and F.
(1899), pp. 265-329; Joseph Fischer, The Discoveries of the Norsemen in America, translated from German by B.
In this field Bechamp, Cohnheim, Albrecht Kossel, and, especially, Emil Fischer and his pupils have been extremely active.
By further decomposition peptones yield peptides, a certain number of which have been synthesized by Emil Fischer and his collaborators.
The subject was taken up by Emil Fischer, who succeeded in synthesizing glucose, and also several of its stereo-isomers, there being 16 according to the Le Bel-van't Hoff theory (see Stereo-Isomerism and Sugar).
One more than in the Fischer formulae.
The scientific exploration of Siberia, begun in the period 1733 to 5742 by Messerschmidt, Gmelin, and De Lisle de la Croyere, was followed up by Muller, Fischer and Georgi.
The development of the brachial supports has been studied by Friele, Fischer and Oehlert.
Fischer, Geschichte der Stadt Ulm (Stuttgart, 1863); Pressel, Ulmisches Urkundenbuch (Stuttgart, 1873) and Ulm and sein Munster (Ulm, 1877); Schultes, Chronik von Ulm (Stuttgart, 1881 and 1886); Hassler, Ulms Kunstgeschichte im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1872); and Das rote Buch der Stadt Ulm, edited by C. Mollvo (1904).
See Fischer, Geschichte der Stadt Zabern (Zabern, 1824).
Fischer, Ber., 1883, 16, p. 657).
Fischer, by the action of baryta water, obtained the synthetic sugars aand 0-acrdse (Berichte, 1889, 22, p. 360).
Fischer, Bellerophon (1851); R.
Editions: Heinsius (Leiden, 1630); Fischer (Leipzig, 1783) ï¿½ in Aldine Edition of Apuleius (Venice, 1521; Paris, 1532); Fell (Oxford, 1667).
If the striking conceptions of Paul Ehrlich and Emil Fischer continue to prove as fertile in inspiring and directing research as at present they seem to be, another wide sphere of.
Fischer in 1723, and by C. J.
Fischer, Ber., 1884, 17, p. 102); by passing the vapours of orthoaminodiphenylmethane over heated litharge (0.
Fischer); by heating salicylic aldehyde with aniline and zinc chloride to 260° C. (R.
Fischer and G.
To 1 First described by the Turk, Haj j i Khalifa, in the 37th century; first seen by the Swedish traveller Otter in 1736, and first published in 1840 in Ritter's Erdkunde, iii., after a drawing by Major Fischer, made in 1837.
Fischer) CH20H CH20H / CH CH OH (CH OH) 2 -> (CH OH)2 CH-OH CH OH CO CHO -> Lactone -> Hexose.
- Fischer found that if one molecule of phenylhydrazine acted upon one molecule of an aldose or ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble in water, but if three molecules of the hydrazine reacted (one of which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline substances resulted, termed osazones, which readily characterized the sugar from which it was obtained.
Fischer may be regarded as one of the most brilliant achievements in modern chemistry.
Fischer showed that methose was identical with the a-acrose obtained by himself and Tafel in 1887 by decomposing acrolein dibromide with baryta, and subsequently prepared by oxidizing glycerin with bromine in alkaline solution, and treating the product with dilute alkali at o°.
The identity of the formulae and osazones of d-mannose and d-glucose showed that the stereochemical differences were situated at the carbon atom adjacent to the aldehyde group. Fischer applied a method indicated by Pasteur in converting dextro into laevo-tartaric acid; he found that both d-mannonic and d-gluconic acids (the latter is yielded by glucose on oxidation) were mutually convertible by heating with quinoline under pressure at 140°.
- The only possible biose is glycollic aldehyde, CHO.CH20H, obtained impure by Fischer from bromacetaldehyde and baryta water, and crystalline by Fenton by heating dihydroxymaleic acid with water to 60°.
The remaining aldohexoses discovered by Fischer are derived from d-galactose from milk-sugar.
These and other considerations have led to the proposal of an alkylen oxide formula for glucose, first proposed by Tollens; this view, which has been mainly developed by Armstrong and Fischer, has attained general acceptance (see Glucose and Glucosjde).
Fischer has proposed formulae for the important disaccharoses, and in conjunction with Armstrong devised a method for determining how the molecule was built up, by forming the osone of the sugar and hydrolysing, whereupon the hexosone obtained indicates the aldose part of the molecule.
By acting with hydrochloric acid on glucose Fischer obtained isomaltose, a disaccharose very similar to maltose but differing in being amorphous and unfermentable by yeast.
Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthesized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloroglucose; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained.
1177); the church of St Peter, reconstructed by Fischer von Erlach in 1702-13, and the University church, erected by the Jesuits in 1625-31, both in the baroque style with rich frescoes; lastly, the small church of St Ruprecht, the oldest church in Vienna, first built in 740, and several times reconstructed; and the old Rathaus.