France is represented by the publishing firms of Ch.
Among more recent firms are W.
Several banking firms and many individual creditors were ruined by the death of the pope.
It is divided between some twenty firms. The premises of Bass's brewery extend over Soo acres, while Allsopp's stand next; upwards of 5000 hands are employed in all, and many miles of railways owned by the firms cross the streets in all directions on the level, and connect with the lines of the railway companies.
Forty years later it had a market at St Petersburg and the Baltic ports, and in 1796 there were nine brewing firms in the town.
It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.
Many different couplers of the Janney type are patented and made by different firms, but the tendency is to equip new cars with one of only four or five standard makes.
Now, however, a large proportion of the crop is sold to local store-keepers who transfer it to exporting firms in neighbouring cities.
When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms. Its object was to squeeze out some middlemen and economize for its members on brokerage.
Originally cotton was imported by the Liverpool dealer as an agent for American firms or at his own risk, and then sold by private treaty, auction, or through brokers, to Cotton market methods.
The issue of this circular by subscribing firms, on the basis of particulars collected by brokers appointed at a weekly meeting, gave rise in 1841 to the Cotton Brokers' Association, to which the development of the market by the systematizing of procedure is largely due.
The rest of the tale may be told in Mr Ellison's own words: " Down to 1864 the leading firms continued to issue weekly market reports, but in that year the association commenced the publication of an associated circular.
It has post and telegraph offices; and agencies of some mercantile firms, a British vice-consul (since 1904) and a Russian consular agent (since 1902) are established there.
The gas and electric lighting is in the hands of private firms. The administration of the park, the city improvements and the water and sewerage departments have been handed over to boards and trusts.
The first instalment of this loan, to be issued in 1904, was guaranteed by the great mining firms of Johannesburg.
The result is that practically all the trade of these states is in the hands of Bangkok Chinese firms, of a certain number of European houses and others, while most of the manual labour connected with the teak industry is done by Ka Mus, who migrate in large numbers from the left bank of the Mekong.
No part of London can be pointed out as essentially a manufacturing quarter, and there is a strong tendency for manufacturing firms to establish their factories outside the metropolis.
In Tottenham Court Road are the showrooms of several large upholstering and furnishing firms. Of the streets most frequented on account of their fashionable shops Bond Street, Regent Street, Oxford Street, Sloane Street and High Street, Kensington, may be selected.
The very much longer lists of German and French firms contain only a few types not represented in this table.
Of England repudiated the heavy debts contracted for his wars in France with the Florentine banking houses of Bardi and Peruzzi (1339), which eventually led to their failure and to that of many smaller firms, and shook Florentine credit all over the world; Philip VI.
And the Florentines were defeated several times, with the result that their credit was shaken and several important firms failed.
This street contains a fine stone church built in 1895 for the use of the Anglican community, a branch of the Bank of British West Africa, telegraph offices and the establishments of the principal trading firms. In Victoriaborg, a suburb of Ussher Town, are the residences of the principal officials, and here a racecourse has been laid out.
Between it and other ports in the Caspian communication is maintained by the mail-steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Steam Navigation Company and many vessels of commercial firms with head offices chiefly at Baku.
Several firms are engaged in the manufacture of mineral waters, for which the water of the Cromac Springs is peculiarly adapted.
Many of the best known mercantile firms and banks of the Far East have branches in Bangkok.
One of the points which he constantly pressed, with eventual success, was that the terms of Government employment should be as good as those offered by the best private firms. In the controversy with the House of Lords he openly proclaimed himself a Single-Chamber man.
On the islands New Pomerania and Mioko only two trading firms had their establishments; and on New Lauenburg the Wesleyans had a mission station.
This firm and its successor, that of Evarts, Choate & Beaman, remained for many years among the leading law firms of New York and of the country, the activities of both being national rather than local.
It keeps a register of British firms who may desire to receive confidential information relative to their respective trades and supplies that information free of charge.
Four large firms manufacturing every variety of art china and earthenware alone employ over 5000 hands.
British, Russian, French, Turkish and Austrian consulates and a few European commercial firms are established at Tabriz; there are also post and telegraph offices.
Other important firms, Tuscan wine-growers, oil-growers, timber traders, colour manufacturers, &c., have their head offices and stores at Leghorn, with a view to export.
The centre of trade is the Manchester Royal Exchange, and though some companies or firms prefer to do business by means of their own salaried salesmen, managers or directors, most of the yarn is sold by agents.
Bombay was the pioneer in the custom, followed now by Calcutta and Karachi, by which deliveries of goods from British merchants remained under the control of the banks until the native dealers took them up. Manchester business with India, China, &c., is done under various conditions, however, and a good many firms have branches abroad.
A good many firms venture occasionally to buy in anticipation of their customers' needs, especially when they expect a rising market.
The terms on which business is conducted are various even in a single market, and it is sometimes a reproach that British firms are old-fashioned in their reluctance to give credit.
The very common complaint of British consuls that British firms neglect to send out travellers may have some foundation, but a commercial house naturally follows the line of least resistance to the development of its trade, and cannot be expected to work remote and barren ground when better opportunities are near at hand.
The difficulty that is naturally experienced by a traveller in finding sufficient support on a sparsely populated "ground" has brought into vogue the traveller on commission who represents several firms. The traveller with salary and allowances for expenses survives, but the quickening induced by an interest in the amount of sales has caused many firms to adopt the principle of commission, which may, however, be an addition to a minimum salary.
Machine-making on a large scale is carried on by firms widely celebrated for the construction of locomotives, railway trucks and carriages, steamboilers and motors, turbines, pumps, metal bridges and roofs.
The towns of Cantu, Meda, Lissone and Carugo supply Milanese firms with most of their merchandise, the furniture being made by the workmen at their own homes with materials supplied by the Milanese buyers, who also advance the capital necessary for working expenses.
Therefore Aldo's marriage combined two important publishing firms. Henceforth the names Aldus and Asolanus were associated on the title pages of the Aldine publications; and after Aldo's death in 1515, Andrea and his two sons carried on the business during the minority of Aldo's children.
By the support of some of the great financial firms they succeeded in forming a company, which carried on the business and undertook fresh settlements on the islands to the north of New Guinea.
The Deulsch-Ost-Afrika Gesellschaft, with a capital of ~ 200,000, took over the territories acquired by Dr Peters, and for the South Seas the Neu-Guinea Gesellschaf I, founded by an amalgamation of a number of firms in 1884, received a charter in 1885.
Cement works have acquired an extension previously unknown, more than thirty firms being now engaged in that branch of industry.
In 1880 the influence of the international " scramble for Africa " made itself felt by the establishment under the recognized protection of the French government of two French firms which opened upwards of thirty trading stations on the Lower Niger.
The establishment of these firms was admittedly a political move which coincided with the extension of French influence from Senegal into the interior.
To effect this end the United African Company was formed in 187 9, and trade was pushed upon the river with an energy which convinced the French firms of the futility of their less united efforts.
These bonds had then reached a sum exceeding 20,000,000 and were held chiefly by French firms. The unification scheme was elaborated in a khedivial decree of the 7th of May 1876, but was rendered abortive by the opposition of the British bondholders.
These seizures created much indignation and anxiety among firms in England whose interests were involved.
Stevens's designs certainly directly raised the standard of production in several metal-working firms by whom he was employed; whilst in the Wellington Memorial in St Paul's Cathedral, and in Dorchester House, his work is seen unfettered by commercial considerations.
British architects and artists who design for the principal decorating firms are to-day as conversant with the Renaissance and succeeding styles of France and Italy as medieval revivalists were familiar with the Gothic styles with which they made us so well acquainted.
In any history of the art revival the influence of such firms as Barbedienne and Christofle in Paris and Tiffany in New York cannot be ignored.
Trustworthy statistics on this point cannot be obtained, because most firms withhold any information .as to the extent of their production from the public.
About half of this quantity comes from the forests of Burma, where large amounts of teak and other woods are annually extracted, chiefly through the agency of private firms. It is, however, only the more valuable of the woods, such as teak, sandal-wood, ebony and the like, which find a market abroad.
The wholesale trade thus rests ultimately with a comparatively small number of persons, who have agencies, or rather corresponding firms, at the great central marts.
Other industries include manufactures of leather, boots and shoes, furniture, bricks and pottery, cigars and cigarettes, beer, wine and spirits, candles and soap. The largest and most numerous commercial firms are German, but there are also French, British, and even Chinese establishments, although the immigration of Chinese is prohibited by law.
Its merchants carry on an active local trade in grain, mustard, oil and tobacco, and some of its firms supply the Russian administration with grain and flour.
The monopoly for cutting and exporting the timber of the Mazandaran forests is leased to European firms, principally for box and oak.
However, in November 1907, when the national assembly or council demanded a budget and made inquiries as to the financial position, it was found that the expenditure foz some years past had been half a million sterling per annum in excess of the receipts and that considerable sums were owing to banks and commercial firms who had lent money.
Various Armenian firms, one with branches at many places in Persia and Russia, also do banking business, while various European firms at Tabriz, Teheran, Isfahan, Shiraz and Bushire, facilitate remittances between Europe and Persia.
Fifteen or sixteen years later it was repeatedly pointed out to the authorities that the revenues from the customs of the Persian Gulf would be much increased if control were exercised at all the ports, particularly the small ones where smuggling was being carried on on a large scale, and in 1883 the shah decided upon the acquisition of four or five steamers, one to be purchased yearly, and instructed the late Au Kuli Khan, Mukhber ad-daulah, minister of telegraphs, to obtain designs and estimates from British and German firms. The tender of a well-known German firm at Bremerhaven was finally accepted, and one of the ministers sons then residing in Berlin made the necessary contracts for the first steamer.
European firms who had lost goods during these troubles were afterwards indemnified by the Persian government.
MERCANTILE (or [[Commercial) Agencies]], the name given in America to organizations designed to collect, record and distribute to regular clients information relative to the standing of commercial firms. In Great Britain and some European countries trade protective societies, composed of merchants and tradesmen, are formed for the promotion of trade, and members exchange information regarding the standing of business houses.
The trade was chiefly in the hands of Dutch merchants, but British, French and Portuguese firms also had factories there.
No fewer than ioo large firms, many of them of world-wide reputation, are engaged in this branch alone.
It is the headquarters of the principal trading firms and missionary societies in the protectorate.