The forests are chiefly composed of oak, fir, pine, ash and alder.
The lower parts of the Riesengebirge are clad with forests of oak, beech, pine and fir; above 1600 ft.
The hills are generally richly wooded, chiefly with fir, beech and oak.
The Siberian larch predominates also in the alpine tracts fringing the plateau on the north, intermingled with the fir, stone-pine, aspen and birch.
The silver fir does not extend over Russia, and the oak does not cross the Urals.
Lemstrbm believed atmospheric electricity to play an important part in the natural growth of vegetation, and he assigned a special role to the needles of fir and pine trees.
High, large remains of a circular cyclopean tower, called Dun-Aengus, ascribed to the Fir-bolg or Belgae; or, individually, to the first of three brothers, Aengus, Conchobar and Nil, who reached Aran Islands from Scotland in the 1st century A.D.
The tree, as with the rest of the fir-tribe, except the larch, is evergreen; new leaves are developed every spring, but their fall is gradual.
It was at the end of a village that stretched along the highroad in the midst of a young copse in which were a few fir trees.
Far in the distance in that birch and fir forest to the right of the road, the cross and belfry of the Kolocha Monastery gleamed in the sun.
The final leg of the journey was a long dirt road that climbed first through a grove of fir followed by an unbroken forest of hardwood just beginning to bud.
Silver Fir (Abies pectinate).
Some of these are: Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine (Pinus flexilis), black pine (Pinus Murrayana), white spruce (Picea alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), Engelman's spruce (Picea Engelmanni), mountain balsam (Abies subalpina), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), mountain larch (Larix Lyallis).
The coarse evergreen color of the small fir trees scattered here and there among the birches was an unpleasant reminder of winter.
Fir trees and branches from the neighbouring forest are collected and planted in front of the houses, so that for a few hours Hasselt has the appearance of being restored to its primitive condition as a wood.
In the drier parts the Scotch fir (Pinus sylvestris) makes its appearance.
Introduced into Britain at the beginning of the 17th century, the silver fir has become common there as a planted tree, though, like the Norway spruce, it rarely comes up from seed scattered naturally.
The fir appears in the Siberian varieties Picea obovata and P. ayanensis.
It seems very probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for cutting timber did not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed cedars and fir-trees.
Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii).
From an equally loose application of the word "fir" by our older herbalists, it is difficult to decide upon the date of introduction of this tree into Britain; but it was commonly planted for ornamental purposes in the beginning of the 17th century.
It is a small bitter species common in upland pastures and fir plantations early in the season.
East of the Ain, forests of fir and oak abound on the mountains, the lower slopes of which give excellent pasture for sheep and cattle, and much cheese is produced.
See also the publications of the Gesellschaft fir pommersche Geschichte and Altertumskunde.
Spruce Fir (Picea excelsa B, Cone and foliage.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
The quantity obtained from each fir is very variable, depending on the vigour of the tree, and greatly lessens after it has been subjected to the operation for some years.
Farther south, in central Bosnia, the oak rarely mounts beyond the foothills, being superseded by the beech, elm, ash, fir and pine, up to 5000 ft.
A large area is under forests, the oak, beech, fir, birch and hornbeam being the principal trees.
In these the predominant trees are the fir and pine, but many others, such as the chestnut, are well represented.
"On the fir and larch grows what is called stelis in Euboea and hyphear in Arcadia."
The extraordinary malformations known as Witches Brooms, caused by the repeated branching and tufting of twigs in which the mycelium of Exoascus (on birch) or Aecidium (on silver fir) are living, may be borne in considerable ntimbers for years without any very extensive apparent injury to the tree.
These bodies had long been known as "fossil fir cones" and "bezoar stones."
Another group of Hymenoptera occasionally causes much harm in fir plantations, namely, the Siricidae or wood-wasps, whose larvae burrow into the trunks of the trees and thus kill them.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
Extensive woods of this fir exist on the southern Alps, where the tree grows up to nearly 4000 ft.; in the Rhine countries it forms great part of the extensive forest of the Hochwald, and occurs in the Black Forest and in the Vosges; it is plentiful likewise on the Pyrenees and Apennines.
It grows upon old trees, especially the oak, ash, fir and cherry.
Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower.
The chestnut is of great value for its wood and ~ is furnished by the oak and beech, and pine and fir forests ~ S~ of the Alps and Apennines.
The evidence of the peat bogs shows that the Scots fir, which is now extinct, was abundant in Denmark in the Roman period.
The berosh, or beroth, of the Hebrew Scriptures, translated "fir" in the authorized version, in I Kings v.
Similar preparations are in use wherever the spruce fir abounds.
Light portable boats are sometimes made of very thin boards of fir, sewn together with cord thus manufactured from the roots of the tree.
Gundlach, Hesse and die Mainzer Stiftsfehde (Marburg, 1899); Walther, Literarisches Handbuch fir Geschichte and Landeskunde von Hesse (Darmstadt, 1841; Supplement, 1850-1869); K.
The fuel used is fir-wood.
Generalstabsbureau fir Kriegsgesch.), Osterreichs Kampfe 1866 (Vienna, 1867; French translation, Les Luttes d'Autriche, Brussels, 1867); Friedjung, Der Kampf urn die Vorherrschaft in Deutschld.
Serie, viii., 1884), "Un Fragment des Metriques d'Heron" (Zeitschrift fir Math.
Bogucharovo lay in a flat uninteresting part of the country among fields and forests of fir and birch, which were partly cut down.
Faringdon House, close to the church, was built by Henry James Pye (1745-1813), poet laureate from 1790 to 1813, who also caused to be planted the conspicuous group of fir-trees on the hill east of the town called Faringdon Clump, or locally (like other similar groups) the Folly.
The poles are of red fir, creosoted, this method of preservation being the only one now used for this purpose in the United Kingdom.
The silver fir flourishes in a deep loamy soil, and will grow even upon stiff clay, when well drained - a situation in which few conifers will succeed.
The spruce bears the smoke of great cities better than most of the Abietineae; but in suburban localities after a certain age it soon loses its healthy appearance, and is apt to be affected with blight (Eriosoma), though not so much as the Scotch fir and most of the pines.
The third zone is characterized by the predominance, up to 6000 ft., of the fir, pine and other conifers.