The lower parts of the Riesengebirge are clad with forests of oak, beech, pine and fir; above 1600 ft.
Some of these are: Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine (Pinus flexilis), black pine (Pinus Murrayana), white spruce (Picea alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), Engelman's spruce (Picea Engelmanni), mountain balsam (Abies subalpina), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), mountain larch (Larix Lyallis).
High, large remains of a circular cyclopean tower, called Dun-Aengus, ascribed to the Fir-bolg or Belgae; or, individually, to the first of three brothers, Aengus, Conchobar and Nil, who reached Aran Islands from Scotland in the 1st century A.D.
The tree, as with the rest of the fir-tribe, except the larch, is evergreen; new leaves are developed every spring, but their fall is gradual.
The hills are generally richly wooded, chiefly with fir, beech and oak.
The final leg of the journey was a long dirt road that climbed first through a grove of fir followed by an unbroken forest of hardwood just beginning to bud.
The coarse evergreen color of the small fir trees scattered here and there among the birches was an unpleasant reminder of winter.
It was at the end of a village that stretched along the highroad in the midst of a young copse in which were a few fir trees.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
Extensive woods of this fir exist on the southern Alps, where the tree grows up to nearly 4000 ft.; in the Rhine countries it forms great part of the extensive forest of the Hochwald, and occurs in the Black Forest and in the Vosges; it is plentiful likewise on the Pyrenees and Apennines.
It seems very probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for cutting timber did not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed cedars and fir-trees.
It is a small bitter species common in upland pastures and fir plantations early in the season.
The extraordinary malformations known as Witches Brooms, caused by the repeated branching and tufting of twigs in which the mycelium of Exoascus (on birch) or Aecidium (on silver fir) are living, may be borne in considerable ntimbers for years without any very extensive apparent injury to the tree.
See also the publications of the Gesellschaft fir pommersche Geschichte and Altertumskunde.
Another group of Hymenoptera occasionally causes much harm in fir plantations, namely, the Siricidae or wood-wasps, whose larvae burrow into the trunks of the trees and thus kill them.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
Silver Fir (Abies pectinate).
The quantity obtained from each fir is very variable, depending on the vigour of the tree, and greatly lessens after it has been subjected to the operation for some years.
Of the Abies group, the silver fir (A.
Introduced into Britain at the beginning of the 17th century, the silver fir has become common there as a planted tree, though, like the Norway spruce, it rarely comes up from seed scattered naturally.
Gundlach, Hesse and die Mainzer Stiftsfehde (Marburg, 1899); Walther, Literarisches Handbuch fir Geschichte and Landeskunde von Hesse (Darmstadt, 1841; Supplement, 1850-1869); K.
Others have hollow or funnel-shaped ends and are constricted at the middle like a dice cup. In some rocks small rod-like microlites are grouped together in a regular way to form growths which resemble fir branches, fern leaves, brushes or networks, in the same manner as minute needles of ice produce star-like snow crystals or the frost growths on a window pane.
The silver fir (Abies sibirica, Pinus pectinata) and the stone-pine (P. Cembra) are quite common; they reach the higher summits, where the last-named is represented by a recumbent species (Cembra pumila).
The fuel used is fir-wood.
Serie, viii., 1884), "Un Fragment des Metriques d'Heron" (Zeitschrift fir Math.
The spruce bears the smoke of great cities better than most of the Abietineae; but in suburban localities after a certain age it soon loses its healthy appearance, and is apt to be affected with blight (Eriosoma), though not so much as the Scotch fir and most of the pines.
A large area is under forests, the oak, beech, fir, birch and hornbeam being the principal trees.
Generalstabsbureau fir Kriegsgesch.), Osterreichs Kampfe 1866 (Vienna, 1867; French translation, Les Luttes d'Autriche, Brussels, 1867); Friedjung, Der Kampf urn die Vorherrschaft in Deutschld.
In these the predominant trees are the fir and pine, but many others, such as the chestnut, are well represented.
The evidence of the peat bogs shows that the Scots fir, which is now extinct, was abundant in Denmark in the Roman period.