Pop. (1900) 2752; (1905, state census) 533 2, of whom 2975 were foreign-born, including 1145 Finns, 676 Austrians and 325 Swedes.
They were probably Finns of the branch now represented by the Votiaks and Permiaks, forced northwards by later immigrants.
The earliest data which may be regarded as established belong to the 1st century, when the Finns migrated from the N.
Finns to advance farther W., and a body of intermingled Tavasts and Karelians penetrated to the S.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
Of this boundary they are intermingled with Turko-Finns, but in the Ural mountains they reappear in a second compact body, and thence extend through S.
Russia, even then were subdivided into Ugrians, Permyaks, Bulgarians and Finns proper, who drove back the previous Lapp population from what is now Finland, and about the 7th century penetrated to the S.
Finns; the Tavasts, in central Finland; the Kvaens, in N.W.
Finns, or Lapps, in N.
Siberia; (c) the Volga Finns, or rather the old Bulgarian branch, to which belong the Mordvinians, and the Cheremisses in Kazan, Kostroma and Vyatka, though they are classified by some authors with the following: (d) the Permyaks, or Cis-Uralian Finns, including the Votiaks on the E.
Of Vyatka, the Permyaks in Perm, the Syryenians or Zyryans in Vologda, Archangel, Vyatka and Perm; (e) the Ugrians, or Trans-Uralian Finns, including the Voguls on both slopes of the Urals, the Ostiaks in Tobolsk and partly in Tomsk, and the Magyars, or Ugrians.
The Esths and all other Western Finns, the Germans and the Swedes are Protestant.
Pop. (1890) 2530; (1900) 3072; (1905, state census) 6117, of whom 2755 were foreign-born, including 716 Swedes, 689 Finns, 685 Canadians, and 334 Norwegians.
The Finns consist principally of Mordvinians (18,500), Ostiaks (20,000) and Voguls (5000).
Although the Finns are not Sla y s, on topographical grounds mention may here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish epic Kalevala (" land of heroes ").
The Ehsts, who resemble the Finns of Tavastland, have maintained their ethnic features, their customs, national traditions, songs and poetry, and their harmonious language.
Pop. (1890) 6184; (1900) 8381, of whom 3779 were foreign-born (many being Finns, - a Finnish weekly was established here in 1905), and 601 were Chinese; (1906, estimate) 97 01.
Like Persephone when carried to Hades, or WainamoInen in the Hades of the Finns (Manala), a living human being must not eat in fairyland; if he does, he dwells there for ever.
There is a considerable import of coal, cotton, iron and breadstuffs, the chief exports being butter, fish, timber and wood pulp. During the period of emigration, owing to political troubles with Russia, over 12,000 Finns sailed from Hangs in a single year (1901), mostly for the United States and Canada.
Nestor regarded them as Finns, and even now part of the Mordvinians (of Finnish origin) call themselves Meshchers.
Klaproth, on the other hand, supposed they were a mixture of Finns and Turks, and the Hungarian traveller Reguli discovered that the tatarized Meshchers of the Obi closely resembled Hungarians.
The Chinese, the Arabs, the Greeks, the Etruscans, the Finns and the Italians have all been claimed as originators of the compass.
The submission of the whole grand duchy would be the natural consequence of such a success, and, Finland once secured, Sprengtporten proposed at the head of his Finns to embark for Sweden, meet the king and his friends near Stockholm, and surprise the capital by a night attack.
Again the Finnish languages spoken in various parts of Russia and more or less allied to Magyar must have spread gradually westwards from the Urals, and their development and diffusion seem to postulate a long period (for the history of the Finns shows that they were not mobile like the Turks and Mongols), so that the ancestral language from which spring Finnish and Magyar can hardly have been brought across Asia after the Christian era.
 p. 116, and for the Finns, Fergusson, p. 250 seq.).
The bulk of the population are Finns (2,352,990 in 1904) and Swedes (349,733).
Both Finns and Swedes belong to the Lutheran faith, there being only 46,466 members of the Greek Orthodox Church and 755 Roman Catholics.
It was probably at the end of the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century that the Finns took possession of what is now Finland, though it was only when Christianity was introduced, about 1157, that they were brought into contact with civilized Europe.
Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c. Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong, hardy race, of low stature, with almost round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat nose, protruding mouth, thick lips, neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape; beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now brown, red and even fair; complexion also somewhat brown.
The Finns are morally upright, hospitable, faithful and submissive, with a keen sense of personal freedom and independence, but also somewhat stolid, revengeful and indolent.
Ldnnrot (1802-1884), for collecting the popular poetry of the Finns, was continued by Castren (1813-1852), Europaeus (1820-1884), and V.
Porkka (18J4-1889), who extended their researches to the Finns settled in other parts of the Russian empire, and collected a considerable number of variants of the Kalewala and other popular poetry and songs.
In order to study the different eastern kinsfolk of the Finns, Sjogren (1792-1855) extended his journeys to North Russia, and Castren to West and East Siberia (Nordische Reisen and Forschungen), and collected the materials which permitted himself and Schiefner to publish grammatical works relative to the Finnish, Lappish, Zyrian, Tcheremiss, Ostiak, Samoyede, Tungus, Buryat, Karagas, Yenisei-Ostiak and Kott languages.
Pinson, Popular Poetry of the Finns (London, 1900); V.
This annual flax appears to have been introduced into the north of Europe by the Finns, afterwards into the west of Europe by the western Aryans, and perhaps here and there by the Phoenicians; lastly, into Hindustan by the eastern Aryans after their separation from the European Aryans.
2 The Finns ascribed a haltia or genius to each object, which could, however, guard other individuals of the same species.
3 The Finns came to apply to the upper gods the term Yumala which originally denoted the living sky; the Samoyedes made the same use of Num, and the Mongols of Tengri.
(a) Unorganized (religions of the Japanese, Dravidians, Finns, Esths, the ancient Arabs, the ancient Pelasgi, the Old-Italian peoples, the Etruscans (?), the Old-Slays).
The Esths, Ehsts or Esthonians, who call themselves Tallopoeg and Maamees, are known to the Russians as Chukhni or Chukhontsi, to the Letts as Iggauni, and to the Finns as Virolaiset.
Like the Finns they possess rich stores of national songs.
The Swedish people belong to the Scandinavian branch, but the population includes in the north about 20,000 Finns and 7000 Lapps.
About the other peoples of Sweden he gives a few details, chiefly of physical or moral characteristics, commenting upon the warlike nature of the Visigauti, the mildness of the Finns, the lofty stature of the Vinovii and the meat and egg diet of the Rerefennae.
The Soyotes, or Soyons, of the Sayan mountains (estimated at 8000), who are Finns mixed with Turks the Uryankhes of north-west Mongolia, who are of Turkish origin but follow Buddhism, and the Karagasses, also of Turkish origin and much like the Kirghizes, but reduced now to a few hundreds, are akin to the above.
It is used at present in two senses: (a) Quite loosely to designate any of the Ural-Altaic tribes, except perhaps Osmanlis, Finns and Magyars, to whom it is not generally applied.
They were most likely Finns (Samoyed has the same meaning) and perhaps the ancestors of the Mordvinians (?..).
Pop. (1900) 2481; (1905 state census) 6566, of whom 3537 were foreign-born, including 1169 Finns, 516 Swedes, 498 Canadians, 323 Austrians and 314 Norwegians.
In the far East conifers are richly represented; among them occur Pinus densiflora,Cryptomeria japonica, Cephalotaxus, species of Abies, Larix, Thujopsis, Sciadopitys venticillata, Pseudolarix Kaempferi, &c. In the Himalaya occur Cedrus deodara, Taxus, species of Cupressus, Finns excelsa, Abies Webbiana, &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers.