In the Finnish war he also managed to distinguish himself.
Their native language, of Finnish origin, is rapidly disappearing, their present language being a Lettish patois.
It is connected by railway with Helsingfors and Tammerfors, and is the centre of the Finnish butter export, which now amounts to over 1,000,000 yearly.
Nests of this species were found in 1821 by Johana Wilhelm Zetterstedt near Juckasj,rwi in Swedish Lapland, but little was known concerning its nidification until 1855, when John Wolley, after two years' ineffectual search, succeeded in obtaining near the Finnish village Muonioniska, on the Swedish frontier, well-authenticated specimens with the eggs, both of which are like exaggerated bullfinches'.
He was accompanied throughout his journey by his mistress, the Finnish girl Afrosina.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which is not inhabited by Sla y s, but by Finnish races and by Germans.
They had Lithuanians to the W.; various Finnish tribes, intermingled towards the S.E.
The Russians have absorbed and assimilated in the course of their history a variety of Finnish and Turko-Finnish elements.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
The Finnish races, which in prehistoric times extended from the Ob all over N.
At present the races of Finnish origin are represented in Russia by the following: (a) the W.
(4) The Meshcheryaks, a tribe of Finnish origin who formerly inhabited the basin of the Oka, and, driven thence during the 15th century by the Russian colonists, immigrated into Ufa and Perm, where they now live among the Baskhirs, having adopted their religion and customs. (5) The Teptyars, also of Finnish origin, settled among the Tatars and Bashkirs in Samara and Vyatka.
Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.
In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
The Judas legend, however, never really became popular, whereas that of Oedipus was handed down both orally and in written national tales (Albanian, Finnish, Cypriote).
The Bulgars of the Volga were of Turkish origin, but may have assimilated Finnish and, later, Slavonian elements.
The Samoyedes are recognized as having the face more flattened than undoubtedly Finnish stocks; their eyes are narrower, their complexion and hair darker.
The Ural-Altaians consist principally of TurkoTatars, Mongols, Tunguses, Finnish tribes and Samoyedes.
The settled Scythians would be the remains of this Iranian population, or the different tribes of them may have been connected with their neighbours beyond Scythian dominion - Thracian Getae and Arimaspi, Slavonic Neuri, Finnish Androphagi and such like.
Although the Finns are not Sla y s, on topographical grounds mention may here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish epic Kalevala (" land of heroes ").
In the 19th Century (1899); The Finnish Question (1899); The Present Status of Religion in Germany (1901).
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
When the Finnish Bible Society began to publish editions of the Scriptures, the tsar Alexander I.
Within fourteen years the following Bible societies were in active operation: the Basel Bible Society (founded at Nuremberg, 1804), the Prussian Bible Society (founded as the Berlin Bible Society, 1805), the Revel Bible Society (1807), the Swedish Evangelical Society (1808), the Dorpat Bible Society (1811), the Riga Bible Society (1812), the Finnish Bible Society (1812), the Hungarian Bible Institution (Pressburg, 1812), the Wurttemberg Bible Society (Stuttgart, 1812), the Swedish Bible Society (1814), the Danish Bible Society (1814), the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden, 1814), the Thuringian Bible Society (Erfurt, 1814), the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld, 1814), the Hanover Bible Society (1814), the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society (1814), the Lubeck Bible Society (1814), the Netherlands Bible Society (Amsterdam, 1814).
Pop. (1890) 6184; (1900) 8381, of whom 3779 were foreign-born (many being Finns, - a Finnish weekly was established here in 1905), and 601 were Chinese; (1906, estimate) 97 01.
The island thus divides the seaward approach to St Petersburg into two channels; that on the northern side is obstructed by shoals which extend across it from Kotlin to Lisynos on the Finnish mainland, and is only passable by vessels drawing less than 15 ft.
Of Russia, Armfelt exercised almost as great an influence as Czartoryski, especially as regards Finnish affairs.
Similar myths are found in relation to the Finnish smith-god Ilmarinen, who made a golden woman, and the Teutonic Wieland; a belief in the magical power of metal-workers is a common survival from an age in which their art was new and mysterious.
Hango owes its commercial importance to the fact that it is practically the only winter ice-free port in Finland, and is thus of value both to the Finnish and the Russian sea-borne trade.
Nestor regarded them as Finns, and even now part of the Mordvinians (of Finnish origin) call themselves Meshchers.
On the other hand, the portraiture of Ska61, the wife of Nior6r, seems to point to a Finnish or Lappish origin.
In such cases there may be some connexion between the giants and the semi-civilized (Finnish or Lappish) communities of the mountainous districts.
BORGA (Finnish Porvoo), a seaport in the province of Nyland, grand duchy of Finland, situated at the entrance of the river Borga into the Gulf of Finland, about 33 m.
HAPARANDA (Finnish Haaparanta, " Aspen Shore"), a town of Sweden in the district (ldn) of Norbotten, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia.
The towns are divided by a marshy channel, formerly the bed of the Torne, but the main stream is now east of the Finnish town.
Sumerian has a system of vowel harmony strikingly like that seen in all modern agglutinative languages, and it has also vocalic dissimilation similar to that found in modern Finnish and Esthonian.
To the east of the Vistula were the Slavonic tribes (Veneti), and amongst them, perhaps rather to the north, a Finnish population(Fenni), which disappeared in later times.
Artificial Phenomena resembling Aurora.-At Sodankyla, the station occupied by the Finnish Arctic Expedition of 1882-1883, Selim Lemstrom and Biese (23) described and gave drawings of optical phenomena which they believed to be artificially produced aurora.
The Bulgars, who descend from a fusion of the Slavonic element with a later Ugro-Finnish immigration, inhabit the kingdom of Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia), parts of the Dobrudja and the greater part of Macedonia, except Old Servia and the Aegean littoral.
TAMMERFORS (Finnish Tampere), the chief industrial city of Finland, capital of the province of Tavastehus, on the rapids connecting Lakes Nisi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, 125 m.
Again the Finnish languages spoken in various parts of Russia and more or less allied to Magyar must have spread gradually westwards from the Urals, and their development and diffusion seem to postulate a long period (for the history of the Finns shows that they were not mobile like the Turks and Mongols), so that the ancestral language from which spring Finnish and Magyar can hardly have been brought across Asia after the Christian era.
When Peter the Great took possession of the mouth of the Neva, a Finnish village, Saari-mois, stood on the site now occupied by the town, and its Russified name Sarskaya was changed into Tsarskoye when Peter presented it to his wife Catherine.
The group, which forms part of the Finnish province of Abo-Bjdrneborg, consists of nearly three hundred islands, of which about eighty are inhabited, the remainder being desolate rocks.
FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa), a grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland.
Along the eastern border the dreary plateaus of Olonets reach on Finnish territory altitudes of from 700 to moo ft.
Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea (Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.
The flora of Finland has been most minutely explored, especially in the south, and the Finnish botanists were enabled to divide the country into twenty-eight different provinces, giving the numbers of phanerogam species for each province.
Emigration was estimated at about three thousand every year before 1898, but it largely increased then owing to Russian encroachments on Finnish autonomy.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
All of these, as also the Finnish Geological Survey, the Forestry Administration, &c., issue publications well known to the scientific world.
The government of the country was practically carried on by the senate, which communicated with St Petersburg through a Finnish secretary attached to the Russian government.
For some years the country was subject to a practically arbitrary form of government, but the disasters of the Russo-Japanese War and the growing anarchy in Russia resulted in 1905 in a complete and peaceful victory for the defenders of the Finnish constitution.
As a Finnish writer puts it: " just as the calamities which had befallen Finland came from Russia, so was her deliverance to come from Russia."
The status quo ante was restored, the diet met in extraordinary session, and proceeded to the entire recasting of the Finnish government.
1 The Finnish mark, markka, of loo penni, equals about 92d.
In 1788 war again broke out between Sweden and Russia, and was carried on for two years without much glory or gain to either party, the main aim of Gustavus being to recover the lost Finnish province.
The word Rus, in former times wrongly connected with the tribal name Rhoxolani, is more probably derived from Ruotsi, a Finnish name for the Swedes, which seems to be a corruption of the Swedish rothsmenn, " rowers " or " seafarers."
The Turkish-Mongol races of the Pechenegs, Polovtsi, Uzes, &c., while in the S., along the Black Sea, was the empire of the Khazars, who had under their rule several Slav tribes, and perhaps also some of Finnish origin.
It is the seat of a Lutheran bishopric which extends over the provinces of Viborg and St Michel with portions of Tavastehus and Nyland; it possesses a beautiful cathedral, and a high school (where the well-known Finnish poet Runeberg lectured for many years), and is the seat of a court of appeal.
The enraged Finnish colonel thereupon approached Gustavus III.