The filtering works include 6 lime saturators, 2 mixing or softening tanks, 6 settling basins, 10 mechanical filters and 2 clear-water reservoirs.
The vats are fitted with filters made of coco-nut matting and jute cloth supported on wooden frames.
Through the time of both tyrants, he was, next to the actual rulers, the first man in Sicily; but of his record of his own times we have only what filters through the recasting of Diodorus.
The water from the melted snow forms a small lake at the bottom of the crater, from which it filters through fissures to the heated rocks below and thence escapes as steam or through other fissures to the mineral springs at the mountain's base.
Such filters are not, and in the nature of things cannot be, worked with the precision and continuity of a laboratory experiment.
In the older filters it was usual to support this sand upon small gravel resting upon larger gravel, and so on until the material was sufficiently open to pass the water laterally to underdrains.
Carmen changed filters and turned on the air conditioner for the summer.
From the shape and position of the phagocytic organs it is obvious that they form admirable strainers through which the fluid of the body-cavity filters (figs.
Mastication, and by filtering through wire-gauze filters, is kept warm by a steam-jacket.
He must have mortars, pots, filters, glasses and boxes clean and sweet.
The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."
In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper proportion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed for some years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities held in mechanical suspension.
In Germany very similar filters have also been used, pearl-quartz gravel taking the place of coral sand, which it closely resembles.
In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass were consumed to make woo kilos of sugar.
Taylor bag filters are generally used for clearing the melted liquor of its mechanical impurities.
In a refinery in Nova Scotia a system has been introduced by which a travelling crane above the bag filters lifts up any head bodily with all its bags attached, and runs it to the mud and washing tanks at the end of the battery, while another similar crane drops another head, fitted with fresh bags, into the place of the one just removed.
The clear, bright syrup coming from the bag filters passes to the charcoal cisterns or filters.
The cistern being thus packed and settled is closed, and the syrup from the bag filters, heated up to nearly boiling point, is admitted at the top until the cistern is quite full.
In addition to cash registers, the city's manufactured products include agricultural implements, clay-working machinery, cotton-seed and linseed oil machinery, filters, turbines, railway cars (the large Barney-Smith car works employed 1800 men in 1905), carriages and wagons, sewingmachines (the Davis Sewing Machine Co.), automobiles, clothing, flour, malt liquors, paper, furniture, tobacco and soap. The total value of the manufactured product, under the "factory system," was $31,015,293 in 1900 and $39,596,773 in 1905.
After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution being heated by steam.
In some cases the operation of filtration is performed for the sake of removing impurities from the filtrate or liquid filtered, as in the purification of water for drinking purposes; in others the aim is to recover and collect the solid matter, as when the chemist filters off a precipitate from the liquid in which it is suspended.
Innumerable forms of filters made with these and other materials were put on the market, and were extolled as removing impurities of every kind from water, and as affording complete protection against the communication of disease.
Examined from this point of view the majority of domestic filters were found to be gravely defective, and even to be worse than useless, since unless they were frequently and thoroughly cleansed, they were liable to become favourable breeding-places for microbes.
The filtering medium in this, as in other filters of the same kind, takes the form of a hollow cylinder or "candle," through the walls of which the water has to pass from the outside to the inside, the candles often being arranged so that they may be directly attached to a tap, whereby the rate of flow, which is apt to be slow, is accelerated by the pressure of the main.
But even filters of this type, if they are to be fully relied upon, must be frequently cleaned and sterilized, and great care must be taken that the joints and connexions are watertight, and that the candles are without cracks or flaws.
This provides for taking water from the Ohio river at a point on the Kentucky side opposite the village of California, Ohio, and several miles above the discharge of the city sewers; for the carrying of the water by a gravity tunnel under the river to the Ohio side, the water being thence elevated by four great pumping engines, each having a daily capacity of 30,000,000 gallons, to settling basins, being then passed through filters of the American or mechanical type, and flowing thence by a gravity tunnel more than 4 m.
They are heat-filters or heat-traps for impounding the heat developed by the combustion of the furnace gas, and later returning it to the blast.
This occurs with clear water as well as with turbid, and obviously arises mainly from the loss of plant food which occurs when water filters through or trickles over poor soil.
In February 1572 he forced on the kirk an order of bishops, " Tulchan bishops," filters through which the remaining wealth of the church trickled into the coffers of the state, or of the regent.
Either at certain intervals, or continuously, a portion of the contents of the tower is withdrawn and fresh ammoniacal salt solution is introduced higher up. The muddy liquid running out is passed on to the vacuum filters (Z, fig.
The recovery of the ammonia from the mother-liquor coming from the vacuum filters and various washing liquors.
It is generally held that the practice of thus limiting families usually prevails, in the first instance, among the betteroff classes, and in time filters down, as "the gospel of comfort" is accepted by those of less resources, until the prolificity of the whole community is more or less affected by it.
Tests made for several successive years by means of culture media and sterile plates, demonstrated the perfect bacteriologic purity of the air, first drawn into the caverns through myriads of rocky crevices that served as natural filters, then further cleansed by floating over the transparent springs and pools, and finally supplied to the inmates of the sanatorium.
The light had to traverse a screen of water before passing through the C, and one of aesculin (which filters out the blue and violet rays) before passing the B.
" The residues on the calico filters are transferred to a large one of the same material and well pressed.
News, 1885, 5 1, p. 199) dissolves the element in boiling concentrated sulphuric acid and reduces the resulting selenious acid with sulphur dioxide, filters off the precipitate and washes it with water and alcohol.
Yet it cannot be too constantly urged that such filtration depends for its comparative perfection upon the surface film; that this surface film is not present when the filter is new, or when its materials have been recently washed; that it may be, and very often is, punctured by the actual working of the filters, or for the purpose of increasing their discharge; and that at the best it must be regarded as an exceedingly thin line of defence, not to be depended upon as a safeguard against highly polluted waters, if a purer source of supply can possibly be found.
In the best filters an automatic arrangement for the measurement of the supply to each separate filter, and for the regulation of the quantity within certain limits, is adopted, and the resistance at outflow is so arranged that not more than a certain head of pressure, about 22 ft., can under any circumstances come upon the surface film, while a depth of several feet of water is maintained over the sand.
This course can scarcely fail to introduce into the sand many bacteria, which may be washed through when the full working of the filters is begun; and it should not, therefore, be adopted when the source of the supply is known to be subject to human pollution.
It is therefore natural that attempts should have been made to construct filters which, while permitting the slow percolation of water, should preclude the passage of bacteria or their spores.
Both these filters arrest the organisms by purely mechanical action, and if the joints are water-tight and they receive proper attention and frequent sterilization, they both give satisfactory results on a small scale for domestic purposes.
By the use of such tanks, however, when the condition of the water demands it, and by passing the effluent water through sand filters when in good condition, the number of microbes is found to be reduced by as much as 97 or even 99%.
This is filtered through fresh bone-char filters, from which it is discharged as a practically colourless liquid.
The whole mass is now run into the filters, which are always constructed on the vacuum principle.