The epidemic nature of wheat-rust was known to Aristotle about 350 B.C., and the Greeks and Romans knew these epidemics well, their philosophers having shrewd speculations as to causes, while the people held characteristic superstitions regarding them, which found vent in the dedication of special festivals and deities to the pests.
Paeans were sung at the festivals of Apollo (especially the Hyacinthia), at banquets, and later even at public funerals.
Other decrees denounced the abuse of indulgences, of festivals of saints, and of processions and suggested reforms; others again enjoined the closing of shops on Sunday during divine service, the issue of service-books with parallel translations in the vernacular, and recommended the abolition of all monastic orders except that of St Benedict, the rules of which were to be brought into harmony with modern ideas; nuns were to be forbidden to take the vows before the age of 40.
But the festivals, especially those of mountain villages or of pilgrimage churches, attract in the summer a great concourse of people, all in their local costumes.
According to the Roman Caeremoniale the bishop wears the mitra pretiosa on high festivals, and always during the singing of the Te Deum and the Gloria at mass.
Two festivals are held in the town, a less important one in October, the other, on the 24th and 25th of May, unique for its gathering of gipsies who come in large numbers to do honour to the tomb of their patroness Sara, contained in the crypt below the apse.
The Feast of Tabernacles is one of the few Jewish festivals, described in classical writers.
In keeping with this, her festivals at Naxos present a double character; the one, full of mourning and sadness, represents her death or abandonment by Theseus, the other, full of joy and revelry, celebrates her awakening from sleep and marriage with Dionysus.
Fowler, The Roman Festivals (1899); G.
It is in the festivals of the annual calendar that this agricultural impress is most fully manifested.
All classes high and low are fond of the religious festivals, the principal of which, the Dasahra, occurs in October, when the first harvest of the year has been secured and the second crops sown.
Among the Hebrews it was the third and chief of the three annual pilgrimage festivals connected respectively with the harvesting of the barley (Passover), of wheat (Pentecost), and of the vine (Tabernacles).
White is also worn during the octaves of these festivals, on ordinary days (for which no special colour is provided) between Easter and Whitsuntide, at certain special masses connected with the saints falling under the above category, and at bridal masses.
Juturna was associated with two festivals: the Juturnalia on the 11th of January, probably a dedication festival of a temple built by Augustus, and celebrated by the college of the fontani, workmen employed in the construction and maintenance of aqueducts and fountains; and the Volcanalia on the 23rd of August, at which sacrifice was offered to Volcanus, the Nymphs and Juturna, as protectors against outbreaks of fire.
Min was especially a god of the desert routes on the east of Egypt, and the trading tribes are likely to have gathered to his festivals for business and pleasure, at Coptos (which was really near to Neapolis, Kena) even more than at Akhmim.
The tablet of Canopus shows that there were two festivals of Bubastis, the great and the lesser: perhaps the lesser festival was!held at Memphis, where the quarter called Ankhto contained a temple to this goddess.
4, &c.) and the anonymous blessings commonly called Shemoneh 'Esreh (the Eighteen), together with certain Psalms. (Readings from the Law and the Prophets [Haphtarah] also formed part of the service.) To this framework were fitted, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns.
Half a century later the famous Gaon Seadiah, also of Sura, issued his Siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic. Besides the Siddur, or order for Sabbaths and general use, there is the Mahzor (cycle) for festivals and fasts.
In 1820 a band of flagellants appeared during a procession at Lisbon; and in the Latin countries, at the season of great festivals, one may still see brotherhoods of penitents flagellating themselves before the assembled faithful.
Fowler, Festivals; and Pauly, Realencyclopeidie, s.v.
Power and presence (numen) there, and the same festivals and sacrifices which had previously been devoted to the cult of the Canaanite Baal were now annexed to the service of Yahweh, the war-god of the conquering race.
33) These festivals formed the veins and arteries of ancient Hebrew Internat.
9 (4, 5), on the relation of Greek sacrifices and festivals to Kou'wviac and politics: al yap apxaiac Ovotac Kai vuvoSoa 4aivovrac yiyveo-Oat uera rhs Kaplrcov crvyKoptSas olov airapxai; cf.
The first Christians continued to observe the Jewish festivals, though in a new spirit, as commemorations of events which those festivals had foreshadowed.
Thus we find dictators destined to hold the elections, to make out the list of the senate, to celebrate games, to establish festivals, and to drive the nail into the temple of Jupiter - an act of natural magic which was believed to avert pestilence.
The auriphrygiata is worn during Advent, and from Septuagesima to Maundy Thursday, except on the third Sunday in Advent (Gaudete), the fourth in Lent (Laetare) and on such greater festivals as fall within this time.
The national costumes are rarely now seen in the neighbourhood of Cagliari, except at certain festivals, especially that of S.
On the other hand in her character of goddess of the spring she was honoured with flower-festivals in Sicily and at Hipponium in Italy.
Demeter and Proserpine were worshipped together by the Athenians at the greater and less Eleusinian festivals, held in autumn and spring respectively.
Fete des fous), the name for certain burlesque quasi-religious festivals which, during the middle ages, were the ecclesiastical counterpart of the secular revelries of the Lord of Misrule.
Certain days seem early to have been set apart as special festivals for different orders of the clergy: the feast of St Stephen (December 26) for the deacons, St John's day (December 27) for the priests, Holy Innocents' Day for the boys, and for the sub-deacons Circumcision, the Epiphany, or the 11th of January.
"Never did pagans," he writes, "solemnize with such extravagance their superstitious festivals as do they ....
On occasions of festivals or pageants the balconies, the bridges, the boats, and even the facades of the houses, were hung with rich Eastern carpets or patterned textiles in gold and coloured silk.
For curious instances of the part played by the ass in medieval church festivals see the article Fools, Feast Of.
Whether it was derived from the Canaanites, who had similar festivals (Judges xxix.
'BAIRAM, a Perso-Turkish word meaning "festival," applied in Turkish to the two principal festivals of Islam.
The slave was introduced with certain customary rites into his position in the family; he was in practice, though not by law, permitted to accumulate a private fund of his own; his marriage was also recognized by custom; though in general excluded from sacred ceremonies and public sacrifices, slaves were admissible to religious associations of a private kind; there were some popular festivals in which they were allowed to participate; they had even special ones for themselves both at Athens and in other Greek centres.
Those famous festivals in which Lorenzo de' Medici delighted had indeed a pagan tone appropriate to the sentiment of the Renaissance; nor were all the worshippers of the Athenian sage so true to Christianity as his devoted student.
In order to conciliate even the Moslems, who include the bulk of the great landholders and of the urban population, its representatives visit the mosques in state on festivals; grants are made for the Mecca pilgrimage; and even the howling Dervishes in Serajevo are maintained by the state.
It has been suggested that it was originally a hag or pilgrimage feast to Jerusalem, of which there were three in the year connected with the agricultural festivals (Exod.
In the West the custom, long universal, of marking the seasons of the ecclesiastical year and the more prominent fasts and festivals by the colour of the vestments of clergy and altar dates, approximately, from the 12th century: the subject is mentioned (c. 1200) in the treatise of Innocent III., De sacro altaris mysterio (cap. 10), where the rules are laid down which are still essentially those of the Roman Church,' though the liturgical colours were only four, violet belonging to the category of black - as that of mourning.
- Trinity Sunday, all festivals of Christ (except those connected with the Passion), festivals of the Blessed Virgin, of the Holy Angels and Confessors, of holy virgins and women (not being martyrs), nativity of St John the Baptist, festivals of the chains of St Peter and of his see (cathedra Petri), Conversion of St Paul, All Saints, consecration of churches and altars, anniversary of election and coronation of popes, and of election and consecration of bishops.
Saturday before Whitsunday, Whitsunday and its octave; all festivals in commemoration of the sufferings of Christ, i.e.
Festival of the instruments of the Passion, of the Precious Blood, of the invention and elevation of the Cross; all festivals of apostles, except those above noted; festivals of martyrs; masses for a papal election; the Feast of the Holy Innocents, when it falls on a Sunday (violet if on a week-day), and its octave (always red).
- Sundays and week-days between Epiphany and Septuagesima, and between Trinity and Advent, except festivals and their octaves and Ember days.
Except at Athens, little is known of the ceremonies or festivals which attended her worship. There we have the following.
Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1903), for the festivals especially; O.
ANTHESTERIA, one of the four Athenian festivals in honour of Dionysus, held annually for three days (II th - r3th) in the month of Anthesterion (February - March).
The public festivals of Siena known as the "Palio delle Contrade" have a European celebrity.
In the oldest Roman ferial we already find festivals of Carthaginian martyrs, and similarly, in the Carthaginian calendar, Roman festivals, while Wright's Syriac Martyrology contains numerous traces of this exchange of festivals.
The same was the case of the festivals of St Stephen, St James and St John, and St Peter and St Paul, as is shown by the liturgical documents, but these festivals were held in connexion with that of Christmas (26th, 27th and 28th December), and were not strictly speaking anniversaries.
That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the evolution of ideas.2 The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original religious meaning to be obscured) and among cere= the priests, and it is interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206).
Luther, in spite of his belief in the Real Presence, regarded it as the most harmful of all the medieval festivals and, though he fully realized its popularity, it was the first that he abolished.
The custom, however, increased, vigils being instituted for the other festivals, including those of saints.
Her chief festivals were the ludi Cereris or Cerealia (more correctly, Cerialia), games held annually from April 12-19 (Ovid, Fasti, iv.
The Eleusinia and Thesmophoria are discussed elsewhere, but brief mention may here be made of certain agrarian festivals held in honour of Demeter.
With this may be compared the festivals of Adonis and Osiris and the myth of Persephone.
Both festivals, of course, belong to a lunar calendar, and move through the solar year every thirty-two years.
22, that the festival was not kept in the time of the early kings, since Solomon appears to have kept up the three great pilgrimage festivals, 2 Kings ix.
"fountain") a sort of eucharist, which has a special sanctifying efficacy, and is usually dispensed at festivals, but only to baptized persons of good repute who have never willingly denied the Mandaean faith.