Numerous forms of ferro-concrete sleepers have also been devised.
Wide, curving out of the water at the ends, with ornamental bow and stern pieces and an iron beak (ferro), resembling a halberd, which is the highest part of the boat.
It was Delisle who assumed the meridian of Ferro, which had been imposed upon French navigators by royal order (1634), to lie exactly 20° to the west of Paris.
When the two electrodes are ferro-magnetic, the direction of the current through the liquid is from the unmagnetized to the magnetized electrode, the latter being least attacked; with diamagnetic electrodes the reverse is the case.
10,600 The policy of the national government has been gradually to lease all its lines except the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brazil, which is retained for sentimental reasons.
The personal element is conspicuous in the Brazilian journalism, and for a considerable period of its history libellous attacks on persons, signed by professional sponsors, popularly called testas de ferro (iron heads), were admitted at so much a line in the best newspapers.
Aluminium bronze (aluminium and copper) and ferro-aluminium (aluminium and iron) have been made in this way; the latter is the more satisfactory product, because a certain proportion of carbon is expected in an alloy of this character, as in ferromanganese and cast iron, and its presence is not objectionable.
He conceived methods for the general resolution of equations of the second, third and fourth degrees different from those of Ferro and Ferrari, with which, however, it is difficult to believe him to have been unacquainted.
Another system had a meridian passing through or near the island of Ferro, defined as 20° W.
Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.
The negative rotation in ferro-magnetic media is the only fact of importance which remained to be discovered afterwards (by M.
Indeed, no limit has yet been found to the temperature which can be reached, if matters are so arranged that not only the carbon and silicon of the pig iron, but also a considerable part of the metallic iron which is the iron itself, are oxidized by the blast; or if, as in the Walrand-Legenisel modification, after the combustion of the initial carbon and silicon of the pig iron has already raised the charge to a very high temperature, a still further rise of temperature is brought about by adding more silicon in the form of ferro-silicon, and oxidizing it by further blowing.
Next comes the deoxidizing and desulphurizing stage, of which the first step is to throw some strongly deoxidizing substance, such as coke or ferro-silicon, upon the molten metal, in order to remove thus the chief part of the oxygen which it has taken up during the oxidation of the phosphorus in the preceding stage.
Read in conjunction with the British consular and diplomatic reports, they afford a comprehensive survey of the movement of population, the progress of trade, &c. The following state papers deserve special notice: Caminhos de ferro (1877, &c.), Commercio e navigarao (annual, issued by the Ministry of Marine), Le Portugal vinicole (1900), Le Portugal ....
Fluor-spar is largely employed by the metallurgist, especially in lead-smelting, and in the production of ferro-silicon and ferro-manganese.
The fruits of these labours appeared in different publications, particularly in his Trattato mineralogico e chemico sulle miniere di ferro del dipartimento del Mella (1808) - treatise on the iron mines of Mella.
A comprehensive account of such matters as population, industry, commerce, finance, mining, shipping, public works, post and telegraphs, railways, education, constitution, law and justice, public health, &c.,may be found in the following works; all those of which the place and date of issue are not specified are published annually in Madrid: Censo de Ia poblacin de Espana: 1900 (Madrid, 1902, &c.); Movimiento de Ia poblacin de Espana; British Foreign Office Reports (annual series and miscellaneous series, London); Esiadistica general de comercio exterior de Espana con sus provincias de ultramar y potencias extrangeras, formada poe la direccin general de Aduanas; Annual Reports of the Council of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders (London); Estadistica mineral de Es paPa; Meteoric sobre las obras publicas; Anuario oficial de correos y idegrafos de Es paPa; Situaciin de los ferro-carriles; Anuario de la primera ensePanza; H.