The south-eastern portion of the province consists of high fen resting on diluvial sand.
The cultivation of potatoes on the sandgrounds in the south and the fen colonies along the Stads-Canal invite general comparison with the industries of Drente (q.v.).
It lies in the midst of the flat fen country.
It will find sustenance equally on the driest of soils as on the fattest pastures; upland and fen, arable and moorland, are alike to it, provided only the ground be open enough.
The word was derived in antiquity from the town of Helos in Laconia, but is more probably connected with 'Aos, a fen, or with the root of AEiv, to capture.
The western division consists of low fen or clay soil and presents a monotonous expanse of rich meadow-land, carefully drained in regular lines of canals bordered by stunted willows, and dotted over with windmills, the sails of canal craft and the clumps of elm and poplar which surround each isolated farm-house.
The surface is generally flat (only a few sand-hills rising to any height) and is diversified by moor, fen, lakes and forest.
Low fen predominates to the east of the capital, between the Zuidlardermeer and the Schildmeer or lakes.
The order is well represented in Britain by 18 genera, which include several species of Orchis: Gymnadenia (fragrant orchis), Habenaria (butterfly and frog orchis), Aceras (man orchis), Hermin- ium (musk orchis), Ophrys (bee, spider and fly orchis), Epipactis (Helleborine), Cephalanthera, Neottia (bird's-nest orchis), one of the few saprophytic genera, which have no green leaves, but derive their nourishment from decaying organic matter in the soil, Listens (Tway blade), Spiranthes (lady's tresses), Malaxis (bog-orchis), Liparis (fen-orchis), Corallorhiza (coral root), also a saprophyte, and Cypripedium (lady's slipper), represented by a single species now very rare in limestone districts in the north of England.
The natural division into dunes, geest grounds, and clay and low fen holds for South as well as for North Holland.
It lies on a gentle eminence in the flat fen country, and the fine Perpendicular tower and spire of the church of St Mary are a landmark from far.
It lies in the flat fen country, on the river Nene (mainly on the east bank), II m.
It is best adapted for application to clays and fen lands and should not be practised on shallow light sands or gravelly soils, since the humus so necessary for the fertility of such areas is reduced too much and the soil rendered too porous and liable to suffer from drought.
It was separated from the sea by a belt of marsh and fen uniting Friesland and North Holland, the original coast-line being still indicated by the line of the Frisian Islands.
Since that time the great changes produced by the drainage of the fen-country have banished this species from nearly the whole of it, so that R.
It lies in a flat agricultural fen district, drained by numerous cuts, some of which are navigable.
The main feature of the northern plain is the so-called Luneburger Heide, a vast expanse of moor and fen, mainly covered with low brushwood (though here and there are oases of fine beech and oak woods) and intersected by shallow valleys, and extending almost due north from the city of Hanover to the southern arm of the Elbe at Harburg.
Southward, the Danube encircles a vast fen, tenanted only by waterfowl and herds of half-wild swine, while the plain which extends to the north-east and east only grows fertile at some distance inland.
Owing to the shrinkage of the soil in reclaimed lands, however, that is, lands which have been drained after fen or other reclamation, the sides of the polder are often higher than the middle, and it is necessary by means of small dams or sluices to make separate water-tight compartments (afpolderingen), each having its own unit of measurement.
West, north and north-east of this the province is flat and consists of sea-clay or sand and clay mixed, except where patches of low and high fen occur on the Frisian borders.
A large part of this has been reclaimed and the sandy soil laid bare, but on the Drente and Prussian borders areas of fen still remain.
Deep. The drainage of the Great Level of the Fens was prosecuted during the 17th century, but lack of engineering skill and the opposition of the fen-men hindered the reclamation of a now fertile region.
On the clay and low fen cattle-rearing and the making of the Gouda cheeses are the principal occupations.
(d) Darwinulidae, including the single species Darwinula stevensoni, Brady and Robertson, described as " perhaps the most characteristic Entomostracan of the East Anglian Fen District."
A pamphlet on the cultivation of osiers in the Fen districts is issued in England by the Board of Agriculture.
It is peculiarly adapted for peaty soils, and is accordingly a favourite crop in the fen lands of England, and on recently reclaimed mosses and moors elsewhere.
Groningen communicates with the Lauwers Zee by the Reitdiep (1873-1876), while the canal to Winschoten and the Stadskanaal, or State canal (1877-1880), bring it into connexion with the flourishing fen colonies in the east of the province and in Drente.
These include various local lines such as the line AlkmaarHoorn (1898), Ede-Barneveld-Nykerk, Enschede-Ahaus in Germany (1902), Leeuwarden to Franeker, Harlingen and Dokkum, and the line Zwolle-Almelo (junction at Marienberg) Koevorden-StadskanalVeendam-Delfzyl, connecting all the fen countries on the eastern borders.
Horticulture and market-gardening are of a high order, and flourish especially on the low fen soil and geest grounds along the foot of the dunes in the provinces of North and South Holland.
The best are the dark blue from the Fen district of Cambridgeshire in England.
His early years were spent at Barnack in the Fen country and at Clovelly in North Devon.
This is only varied by the strip of fertile clay and grass-land which is found along the banks of the rivers, and by the areas of high fen in the southeastern corner and on the western borders near Assen.
The work is conducted on a regular system of fen colonization, the first operation being directed towards the drainage of the country.
Of the fen-colonies in Drente the best known are those of Frederiksoord and Veenhuizen.
Hoogeveen, situated between these two, owes its origin to the fen reclamation which was begun here in 1625 by Baron van Echten.
It is without doubt the Sterna of Turner, and in former days was abundant in many parts of the fen country,' to say nothing of other districts.
The soil of Friesland falls naturally into three divisions consisting of sea-clay in the north and north-west, of low-fen between the south-west and north-east, and of a comparatively small area of high-fen in the south-east.
The clay and low-fen furnish a luxuriant meadow-land for the principal industries of the province - cattle-rearing and cheeseand butter-making.
In the high-fen district peat-digging is the chief occupation.
On its western side the plateau declines into the clay lands (and in the north-west low fen) which characterize the western half of the province.
Bunschoten on the Zuider Zee is a fishing village; Venendaal, on the south-eastern border, originally a fen-colony, is now a market for the bee-keeping industry in the east.
RAMSEY, a market-town in the Northern or Ramsey parliamentary division of Huntingdonshire, England, on the south-western border of the Fen country, on branch lines of the Great Northern and the Great Eastern railways, 13 m.
Ramsey, however, was not completely insulated, like some of the monasteries of the Fen district.
- The English system of inland navigation is confined principally to the following districts: South Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Midlands, especially about Birmingham, the Fen district and the Thames i basin (especially the lower part).
These exist for the purpose of regulating drainage, and providing defence against water in fen lands or lands subject to floods from rivers or tidal waters.
It lies in the midst of the flat fen country, on the old course of the river Nene.
The Thames, bordered in early times by a great expanse of fen on either hand from Chelsea and Battersea downward, washed, at the point where the Abbey stands, one shore of a low island perhaps three-quarters of a mile in circumference, known as Thorney or Bramble islet.
Rend., 1902, 1 35, P. 73 8) obtained ferrous nitride, Fe3N2, and ferric nitride, FeN, as black powders by heating lithium nitride with ferrous potassium chloride and ferric potassium chloride respectively.
Besides the sterile and monotonous steppes, valuable only as pasture, and so sparsely populated that it is possible to travel for many hours without encountering any sign of human life except a primitive artesian well or a shepherd's hut, there are wide expanses of fen-country, regularly flooded in spring and autumn.
Lincolnshire was originally included in the Mercian diocese of Lichfield, but, on the subdivision of the latter by Theodore in 680, the fen-district was included in the diocese of Lichfield, while the see for the northern parts of the county was placed at "Sidnacester," generally identified with Stow.
The fen-drainage resulted in the extinction of many local industries, such as the trade in goose-feathers and the export of wild fowl to the London markets, a 17th-century writer terming this county "the aviary of England, 3000 mallards with other birds having been caught sometimes in August at one draught."
To the north runs the great Forty-foot Drain, also called Vermuyden's, after the Dutch engineer whose name is associated with the fen drainage works of the middle of the 17th century.
Under the various names of the War Horse, the Great Horse, the Old English Black Horse and the Shire Horse, the breed has for centuries been cultivated in the rich fen-lands of Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire, and in many counties to the west.
Deurne, a few miles east of Helmond, the site of a prehistoric burial-ground, was an early fen colony.
Henceforward, for 290 m., the Rumanian shore is a desolate fen-country, varied only by a few hills, by cities, and by lagoons often 15 m.
Peat-digging and fen reclamation have been carried on from an early period, and the area of high fen which formerly covered the portion of the province to the north of the Vecht in the neighbourhood xx.
This industry is now most active on the eastern borders between Almelo and Hardenberg, Vriezenveen being the chief fen colony.
It lies in the midst of the flat Fen country.