ARABI PASHA (c. 1839-), more correctly AUMAD `ARABI, to which in later years he added the epithet al-Misri, " the Egyptian," Egyptian soldier and revolutionary leader, was born in Lower Egypt in 1839 or 1840 of a fellah family.
To succeed, it was essential that the fellah should be taught that discipline might be strict without being oppressive, that pay and rations would be fairly distributed, that brutal usage by superiors would be checked, that complaints would be thoroughly investigated, and impartial justice meted out to soldiers of all ranks.
While the patient fellah, resigned to the decrees Of the Almighty, saw the ruling Egyptian class hurry away from Cairo, he saw also those of his comrades who were stricken tenderly nursed, soothed in deaths struggles, and in many cases actually washed, laid out and interred by their new self-sacrificing and determined masters.
Tb.e honesty and discipline of the fellah were shown to be undoubtedly of a high order.
The intelligent professional knowledge of the native officers, taught under British gentlemen, and the constant hard work cheerfully rendered by the fellah soldiers, were the main factors of the success achieved at Omdurman on the 2nd of September 1898.
By nature the fellah is unwarlike.
It has been aptly said the fellah would make an admirable soldier if he only wished to kill some one!
In 1875 the 1ea~jflgto impoverishment of the fellah had reached such a ~he depoint that the ordinary resources of the country no Pofo~.kmo:I, longer sufficed for the most urgent necessities of administration; and the khedive Ismail, having repeatedly broken faith with his creditors, could not raise any more loans on the European market.
Among the mutinous soldiers on that occasion was a fellah officer calling himself Ahmed Arabi the Egyptian.
The fellah is thus deprived of his harvest and falls into arrears with his taxes, and is harassed and bastinadoed to force him to pay his debts.