Confalonieri, who was in favor of an Italian federation composed lEngelsm of northern Italy under the house of Savoy, central bardy.
He had been a member of the Social Democratic Federation since 1883.
In 1889 an important step towards federation was taken by Sir Henry Parkes.
It is impossible to assign any precise date for the beginning of the Hanseatic League or to name any single factor which explains the origin of that loose but effective federation of North German towns.
The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles.
The Italian Federation of Agrarian Unions has greatly contributed to agricultural progress.
A lay ministry was now demanded, a constitution, and an Italian federation for war against Austria.
Out of this grew the Free Church Federation, which secures a measure of co-operation between the Protestant Evangelical churches throughout England.
He believes the United States to be a unified republic, a sovereign nation; and not a federation of independent states united only for mutual benefit and protection.
All kindred organizations in the states gradually became amalgamated with this national body, and the federation was completed in 1839 by the adhesion of the Philadelphia Society (which now changed its name to the Pennsylvania Bible Society).
Under the Constitution of the 5th of February 1857, subsequently modified in many important particulars, the government of Mexico is described as a federation of free and sovereign states invested with representative and democratic institutions.
Be seen by the elaborate balance of power maintained in the federation of Mexico, Tezcuco and Tlacopan, where each king was absolute in his own country, but in war or other public interests they acted jointly, with powers in something like the proportion in which they divided conquered lands and spoil, which was two-fifths each to Mexico and Tezcuco and one-fifth to Tlacopan.
Since federation no chartered bank has been compelled to liquidate without paying its note-holders in full.
Federation at no time actually dropped out of sight, but it was not until thirtyfive years later that any practical steps were taken towards its accomplishment.
The stadtholder summoned a meeting of the states of Holland and Zeeland to Delft, and on the 25th of April an act of federation between the two provinces was executed.
Like Gioberti he advocated a federation of Italian states, but he declared that before this could be achieved Austria must be expelled from Italy and compensation found for her in the Near East by making her a Danubian powera curious forecast that Italys liberation would begin with an eastern war.
There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.
In 1870 was founded the United Synagogue, which is a metropolitan organization, and the same remark applies to the more recent Federation of Synagogues.
He was a member of all the bodies formed to promote the Federation of Australia as well as of the delegation which proceeded to London with the Australian Commonwealth bill in 1 9 o° and, as Attorney-General, he was included in Sir Edmund Barton's first Federal " Cabinet of the Captains " (1901-3), succeeding him as Premier of Australia.
The chief concern of the Natal government was to remodel their native policy where it proved inadequate, especially in view of the growth of the movement for the federation of the South African colonies.
He was at this time in favour of a strong Austrian empire, which should consist of a federation of the southern German and the Slav states, allowing of the retention of their individual rights.
He had gone to Pretoria hoping that the Transvaal volksraad would accept Carnarvon's federation scheme; but the federation proposals were rejected by the raad.
In 1864 he divided Venezuela into twenty states and formed them into a Federal republic. The twenty parties whose struggles had caused so much strife and bloodshed were the Unionists, who desired a centralized government, and the Federalists, who preferred a federation of semiautonomous provinces.
The members accidentally discovered that the fear of it had a great influence over the lawless but superstitious blacks, and soon the club expanded into a great federation of regulators, absorbing numerous local bodies that had been formed in the absence of civil law and partaking of the nature of the old English neighbourhood police and the ante-bellum slave patrol.
Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.
The question of federation was not lost sight of by the framers of the original constitution which was bestowed upon New South Wales.
During the first six years of federation there were five ministries; the tenure of office under the threeyearly system was naturally uncertain, and this uncertainty was reflected in the proposals of whatever ministry was in office.
- After the revolution in Russia, Western (or Russian) Turkestan became a member of the Federation of Soviet Republics.
He was the author of a number of works, of which the most notable besides Ocean to Ocean are, Advantages of Imperial Federation (1889), Our National Objects and Aims (1890), Religions of the World in Relation to Christianity (1894) and volumes of sermons and lectures.
At the same time, the change which had now come over Italian politics, the desire on all sides for a settlement, and the growing conviction that a federation was necessary, proved advantageous to the popes as sovereigns.
Apprehending the importance of Italian federation, Lorenzo, by his personal tact and prudent leadership of the republic, secured peace and a common intelligence between the five powers.
In this year the short-lived federation of the five powers was shaken, and Italy was once more drawn into the vortex of Europe~n affairs.
His political ideal was a federation of all the Italian states under the presidency of the pope, on a basis of Catholicism, but without a constitution.
In the expected war with Poland, which followed quickly, the Russians were so successful that the arrangement was upheld; but it was soon found that the Cossacks, though they professed unbounded devotion to the Orthodox tsar, disliked Muscovite, quite as much as Polish, interference in their internal affairs, and some of their leaders were in favour of substituting federation with Poland for annexation by Russia.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
When he swore to maintain the constitution, then in progress of construction, at the festival of the federation on the 14th of July 1790, he was at the height of his popularity.
But at the close of 1906 the Cape ministry formally reopened the question of federation, and at a railway conference held in Pretoria in May 1908 the Natal delegates agreed to a motion affirming the desirability of the early union of the self-governing colonies.
"Febronius," indeed, was in favour of a frank recognition of this national basis of ecclesiastical organization, and saw in Episcopacy the best means of reuniting the dissidents to the Catholic Church, which was to consist, as it were, of a free federation of episcopal churches under the presidency of the bishop of Rome.
Alone the Pan-Polish party reverted irreconcilably to the historic solution of union or federation with Poland.
The Peasants' party combined with the Popular Socialist party, while the "Workers' Federation" and the "Yeomen's Union" (these being but the small landowners) formed part of the Christian Socialist governing bloc. Legally recognized parties which were not represented in the Seim were: (a) the Progressive party (Pajanga); (b) the Liberal party (known as the Santara Union); (c) " Landlords' Association" (which comprised only large landed proprietors).
On the fall of the Brown-Dorion administration in 1858 he was called on to form a ministry, but declined the task, and became finance minister under Sir John Macdonald and Sir George Cartier on condition that the federation of the British North American provinces should become a part of their programme.
To his diplomacy was due the coalition in 1864 between Macdonald, Brown and Cartier, which carried the federation of the British North American provinces, and throughout the three years of negotiation which followed his was one of the chief influences.
In 1892 he became definitely associated in the public mind with a movement for free church federation which grew out of a series of meetings held to discuss the question of home reunion.
He was a lifelong advocate of international peace, and made a remarkable declaration as to the Christian standard of national action when the Free Church Federation met at Leeds during the South African War in 1900.
The volksraad at Winburg during this period continued to claim jurisdiction over the Boers living between the Orange and the Vaal and was in federation with the volksraad at Potchefstroom, which made a similar claim upon the Great Boers living north of the Vaal.
Though he had thrown the weight of his influence against Lord Carnarvon's federation scheme Brand disapproved racial rivalries.
I The whole structure of Hebrew society at the time of the conquest was almost precisely that of a federation of Arab tribes, and thereligious ordinances are scarcely distinguishable from those of Arabia, save only that the great deliverance of the Exodus and the period when Moses, sitting in judgment at the sanctuary of Kadesh, had for a whole generation impressed the sovereignty of Jehovah on all the tribes, had created an idea of unity between the scattered settlements in Canaan such as the Arabs before Mahomet never had.
The socialism of this body was not, however, advanced enough for his views, and after studying the programme of the, more violent Jura Federation at Neuchatel and spending some time in the company of the leading members, he definitely adopted the creed of anarchism and, on returning to Russia, took an active part in spreading the nihilist propaganda.
In 1877 he went to Paris, where he helped to start the socialist movement, returning to Switzerland in 1878, where he edited for the Jura Federation a revolutionary newspaper, Le Revolte, subsequently also publishing various revolutionary pamphlets.
A description of the state governments, one feature must be noticed which is common both to the states and to the Federation, and gives to the governmental system of both a peculiar character, different from that of the government of Great Britain.
There are four kinds of savings banks in Canada: - (1) the post-office savings banks; (2) the government savings banks of the Maritime provinces taken over at federation and being gradually merged with the former; (3) two special savings banks in the cities of Montreal and Quebec; (4) the savings bank departments of the chartered banks.
He wrote letters to the cities of Italy, asking them to send representatives to an assembly which would meet on the 1st of August, when the formation of a great federation under the headship of Rome would be considered.
Although the bill drawn up by the convention of 1891 was not received by the people with any show of interest, the federation movement did not die out; on the contrary, it had many enthusiastic advocates, especially in the colony of Victoria.
Western Australia did not put it to the vote, as the Enabling Act of that colony only provided for joining a federation of which New South Wales should form a part.
Act of Federation between Holland and Zeeland.
This Committee consists of 75 members, sending representatives to Moscow to the meetings of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Federation of Soviet Republics, but the Turkestan Republic showed itself very little inclined to accept the control which the Central Committee at Moscow endeavoured to maintain.
Mr Chamberlain when in South Africa in 1903 had also put forward federation as the desired goal.
At the federation festival of the 14th of July 1790 (the "Feast of Pikes") he officiated at the altar reared in the middle of the Champ de Mars.
In 1894 an unofficial convention was held at Corowa, at which the cause of federation was strenuously advocated, but it was not until 1895 that the movement obtained new life, by reason of the proposals adopted at a meeting of premiers convened by Mr G.
The prestige of the country was practically gone, not only with the world outside, but, what was of still more moment, with her neighbour the Free State, which felt that a federation with the Transvaal, which the Free State once had sought but which it now forswore, was an evil avoided and not an advantage lost.
In its charities Cleveland has carried far the principle of coOperation, seeking to obviate through a welfare federation the waste in soliciting contributions.
New South Wales having decided in favour of federation, the way was clear for a decision on the part of Western Australia.