At the outbreak of the Civil War the city was abandoned, and the navy yard was burned by the Federals in April 1861; Norfolk was then occupied until the 9th of May 1862 by Virginia troops, first under General William Booth Taliaferro (1822-1898) and later under General Benjamin Huger (1806-1877).
The penitentiary at Jackson was established under an Act of 1836, was erected in 1838-1839, was opened in 1840, was burned by the Federals in 1863, and was rebuilt in 1866-1867.
Wilmington was captured by the Federals in February 1865; General Sherman's army crossed the southern boundary in March; a battle was fought at Bentonville, March 19-21; Raleigh was entered on April 13; and the Confederates under General Joseph E.
The troops of the Army of the Tennessee were swiftly driven back, and their commander, McPherson, killed; but presently the Federals re-formed and a severe struggle ensued, in which most of Hood's army joined.
The next event of importance in the history of the Bahamas was the rise of the blockade-running trade, consequent on the closing of the southern ports of America by the Federals, in 1861.
During the night of the 29th of May Beauregard evacuated the place (which was occupied by the Federals on the following day), and re-established his line at Tupelo.
The Federals advanced in their turn, the Bavarians on the right, the 8th on the left, and the opponents met in the valley of the Tauber.
In the spring of 1861 the Federals set fire to several war vessels in the Gosport navy yard on the Elizabeth river and abandoned the place.
In October 1861 Captain John Ericsson, an engineer, and a Troy (N.Y.) firm, as builders, began the construction of the iron-clad "Monitor" for the Federals, at Greenpoint, Long Island.
On the 8th of March about 1 p.m., the "Merrimac," commanded by Commodore Franklin Buchanan (1795-1871), steamed down the Elizabeth accompanied by two one-gun gun-boats, to engage the wooden fleet of the Federals, consisting of the frigate "Congress," 50 guns, and the sloop "Cumberland," 30 guns, both sailing vessels, anchored off Newport News, and 1 For the idea of the low free-board and the revolving turret Ericsson was indebted to Theodore R.
In the end complete success rewarded the sacrifices and efforts of the Federals on every theatre of war; in Virginia, where Grant was in personal control, the merciless policy of attrition wore down Lee's army until a mere remnant was left for the final surrender.
Later in 1863, when the battle of Chattanooga brought the Federals to the borders of Georgia, Johnston was assigned to command the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, and in the early days of May 1864 the combined armies of the North under Sherman advanced against his lines.
The great numerical superiority of the Federals enabled Sherman to press back the Confederates without a pitched battle, but the severity of the skirmishing may be judged from the casualties of the two armies (Sherman's about 26,000 men, Johnston's over io,000), and the obstinate steadiness of Johnston by the fact that his opponent hardly progressed more than one mile a day.
An attack was made on the same day and the Federals were driven within their defences, but at night General Price withdrew to the Fair-grounds not far away and remained there five days waiting for his wagon train and for reinforcements.
Again want of support checked the Federals and the fight became stationary, both sides losing many men.
Hill, whose men had fought the battle of South Mountain and had already been three times engaged a fond on this day, proper support must have enabled the Federals to crush Lee's centre, but Franklin and Porter in reserve were not allowed by McClellan to move forward and the opportunity passed.
But the Federal armaments were not on such a scale as to enable the government to cope with a "nation in arms," and the first call for volunteers was followed by more and more, until in the end the Federals had more than a million men under arms. At first the troops on both sides were voluntarily enlisted, but the South quickly, the North later, put in force conscription acts.
The arrival of Johnston on the previous evening and his lieutenant Kirby Smith at the crisis of the battle (for Patterson's part in the plan had completely failed), turned the scale, and the Federals, not yet disciplined to bear the strain of a great battle, broke and fled in wild rout.
From the first months of the war the sea power of the Federals was practically unchallenged, and the whole length of the hostile coast-line was open to invasion.
The attempt failed when almost on the point of success, and the Federals, under the excellent leadership of Generals C. F.
Halleck, who was here in control of all the operations of the Federals, had meanwhile ordered Grant's force to ascend the Tennessee river and operate against Corinth; Buell's well-disciplined forces were to march overland from Nashville to join him, and General O.
The arrival of Buell enabled the Federals to take the offensive next morning along the whole line, and by sunset on the 7th, after another sanguinary battle, Beauregard was in full retreat.
McClellan, deprived of McDowell's corps, felt himself reduced to impotence, and three Federal armies were vainly marching up and down the Valley when Johnston fell with all his forces upon the Army of the Potomac. The Federals lay on both sides of the Chickahominy river, and at this moment Johnston heard that McDowell's arrival need not be feared.
General Lee, who had succeeded Johnston in the command of the Army of northern Virginia, proposed to attack the Federals in their line of communication with White House, and passed most of his forces round to the aid of Jackson.
In the end the Federals were sharply pursued, but McClellan had gained a long start and, fighting victoriously almost every day, at length placed himself in a secure position on the James, which was now patrolled by the Federal warships (June 26 - July I).
On the 9th of August Banks and Jackson joined battle once more at Cedar Mountain (or Cedar Run); the Federals, though greatly inferior in numbers, attacked with much vigour.
On the i 3 th of September Jackson was besieging i 1,000 Federals in Harper's Ferry, Longstreet was at Hagerstown, Stuart's cavalry holding the passes of the South Mountain, while McClellan's whole army lay at Frederick.
Charleston was attacked without success in 1862, but from June to August 1863 it was besieged by General Gillmore and Admiral Dahlgren, and under great difficulties the Federals secured a lodgment, though it was not until Sherman appeared on the land side early in 1865 that the Confederate defence collapsed, Fort Fisher near Wilmington also underwent a memorable siege by land and sea.
Hooker's operations began well, Lee was outmanoeuvred and threatened in flank and rear, but the Federals were in the end involved in the confused and disastrous battle of Chancellorsville (q.v.).
Skirmishing constantly with the Confederates under Kirby Smith and Taylor, the Federals eventually on the 8th and 9th of April suffered serious reverses at Sabine Cross Roads and Pleasant Hill.
A week later the Federals, again moving to their left, arrived upon the ground on which McClellan had fought two years before, and at Cold Harbor (Porter's battlefield of Gaines' Mill) the leading troops of the Army of the James joined the lieutenant-general.
Hunter's assault (June 18) failed, and the Federals, unable to hold their ground, had to make a circuitous retreat to the Potomac by way of West Virginia.
The attack of the Federals failed utterly; not even Fredericksburg was so disastrous a defeat.
The river was crossed, Lee as usual conforming to the movement, and on the 15th of June the Federals appeared before the works of Petersburg (q.v.).
On the decisive theatre the Federals made their way, little by little and at a heavy cost, to the Weldon railway, and beyond it to the westward.
On the 25th of August there was a battle at Reams Station, in which the Federals were forced back, and the famous II.
A combat which took place, at Mount Jackson, during the pursuit, again ended successfully, and the triumphant Federals retired down the Valley, ruthlessly destroying everything which might be of the slightest value to the enemy.
He was at his best at such a moment, and the rallied Federals under his command swept all before them.
After a time Johnston fell back, and on the 6th of June the Federals appeared before Marietta.
The resistance of the Federals was stubborn; at 5 p.m.
About sunset the Federals under Porter (three ?
Lee's right wing had in the meantime demonstrated against the main body of the Federals about Fair Oaks, on the south bank of the river.
On June 30 Jackson got into action with Whiting's division at White Oak Swamp, while Longstreet encountered the Federals at Frazier's Farm (or Glendale).
At Kernstown, indeed, Jackson was tactically defeated by the Federals under Shields (March 23, 1862).
Eleven thousand Federals, surrounded in Harper's Ferry, were forced to surrender, and Jackson rejoined Lee just in time to oppose McClellan's advance.
Possibly it is from this reform that we may date the antithesis of Federals and Centralists, which is so conspicuous in the history of republican Mexico.
In April 1861 it was burned and abandoned by the Federals, and for a year afterwards was the chief navy yard of the Confederates.
10 and the shore batteries on the 4th of April, and Lieut.-Commander Egbert Thompson, commanding the "Pittsburgh," on the 7th; meanwhile the Federals under the direction of Colonel Josiah W.
The responsibility for this fire was charged by the Confederates upon the Federals and by the Federals upon the Confederates.
But the Federals once more, and this time on a far larger scale, concentrated in the face of the enemy.
Corps were delayed by stormy weather, Bragg reinforced Longstreet, and telegraphic communication between Grant and the Federals at Knoxville had already ceased.
The 24th then had been a day of success for the Federals, and the decisive attack of the three armies in concert was to take place on the 2 5th.
These too were withdrawn in the night, and the victory of the Federals was complete.
Endeavours to persuade the Federals, the Intransigeants, and even the Opportunists of Democracy that the times were ripe for a venture.
During the Civil War Nashville was at first held by the Confederates, but early in 1862 it was occupied by the Federals, who retained possession of it to the end.
Then the Federals broke the attenuated line of defence at its left centre, and Hood's army drifted away in disorder.
Schofield at Franklin, and on the 15th-16th of December was utterly defeated by Thomas at Nashville, the Federals thus securing virtually undisputed control of the state.1 After the occupation of the state by the Federal armies in 1862 Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor by the president (confirmed March 3, 1862), and held the office until inaugurated vice-president on the 4th of March 1865.