FEDERALIST PARTY, in American politics, the party that organized the national government of the United States under the constitution of 1787.
They, having the great opportunity of initiative, organized it in all its branches, giving it an administrative machinery that in the main endures to-day; established the doctrine of national neutrality toward European conflicts (although the variance of Federalist and Republican opinion on this point was largely factitious); and fixed the practice of a liberal construction of the Constitution,) - not only by Congress, but above all by the United States Supreme Court, which, under the lead of John Marshall (who had been appointed chief-justice by Pres.
Rivadavia resigned, and Vicente Lopez, a Federalist, was elected to succeed him, but was speedily displaced by Manuel Dorrego (1827), another representative of the same party.
The carrying out of Federalist principles led, however, to the formation in the republic of a number of quasiindependent military states, and Dorrego only ruled in Buenos Aires.
On the death of Dorrego, a remarkable man, Juan Manuel de Rosas, became the Federalist chief.
Like the rest of his family, he belonged to the Federalist party, and his appointment in 1889 as governor of Bohemia was the cause of grave dissatisfaction to the German Austrians.
The crisis of 1860, by which the office he held was abolished, was the end of his official career; for the rest of his life he was very prominent as the leader of the Federalist party in Bohemia.
In presidential campaigns the state has been Federalist, 1792-1800; Democratic-Republican, 1804-1820; Adams-Republican, 1824-1828; Anti-Masonic, 1832; Whig, 1836-1852; and Republican since 1856.
In this body he served in 1789-1796, supported Hamilton's financial measures, Washington's neutrality proclamation and the Jay Treaty, and became one of the recognized leaders of the Federalist party.
He was minister to Great Britain in1796-1803and again in 1825-1826, and was the Federalist candidate for vicepresident in 1804 and 1808, and for president in 1816, when he received 34 electoral votes to 183 cast for Monroe.
Most of the Federalists of 1787-1788 became members of the later Federalist Party.
The Federalist Party, which may be regarded as definitely organized practically from 1791, was led, leaving Washington aside, by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. A nationalization of the new central government to the full extent warranted by a broad construction of the powers granted to it by the constitution, and a correspondingly strict construction of the powers reserved to the states and the citizens, were the basic principles of Hamilton's policy.
John Adams), impressed enduringly on the national system large portions of the Federalist doctrine.
Their conservatism became increasingly a reactionary fear of democracy; indeed, it is not a strained construction of the times to regard the entire Federalist period from the American point of view as reactionary - a reaction against the doctrines of natural rights, individualism, and states' rights, and the financial looseness of the period of the War of Independence and the succeeding years of the Confederation.
Morse, The Federalist Party in Massachusetts (Princeton, N.J., 1909); and the biographies and writings of George Cabot, Fisher Ames, Gouverneur Morris, John Jay, Rufus King, Timothy Pickering, Theodore Sedgwick, C. C. Pinckney and J.
Alexander Martin Federalist Samuel Ashe.
In 1796, on the refusal of Washington to accept another election, Adams was chosen president, defeating Thomas Jefferson; though Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists had asked that an equal vote should be cast for Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the other Federalist in the contest, partly in order that Jefferson, who was elected vice-president, might be excluded altogether, and partly, it seems, in the hope that Pinckney should in fact receive more votes than Adams, and thus, in accordance with the system then obtaining, be elected president, though he was intended for the second place on the Federalist ticket.
Adams's four years as chief magistrate (1797-1801) were marked by a succession of intrigues which embittered all his later life; they were marked, also, by events, such as the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which brought discredit on the Federalist party.
In 1800, Adams was again the Federalist candidate for the presidency, but the distrust of him in his own party, the popular disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts and the popularity of his opponent, Thomas Jefferson, combined to cause his defeat.
Smith (ed.), The St Clair Papers: Life and Services of Arthur St Clair (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1882); Jacob Burnet, Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory (Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E.
In politics the period is characterized by Boston's connexion with the fortunes of the Federalist party.
The constitution of 1787 was then before the public, and Gallatin, with his dislike of strong government still upon him, threw himself into opposition and became one of the founders of the Anti-Federalist, or, as it was afterwards called, the Republican party.
Gallatin was thrown helplessly back upon the rejected Federalist doctrine of government according to circumstances.
The Rutland Herald, one of the oldest newspapers in Vermont still published, was established as a Federalist weekly in 1794--a daily edition first appeared in 1861, and is now Republican.
Politically, he was an ardent patriot during the War of Independence, and a strong Federalist afterwards, several of his political discourses attracting wide attention.
He was an earnest advocate of the adoption of the Federal constitution, was a member of the Massachusetts convention which ratified that instrument, and was one of the most influential advisers of the leaders of the Federalist party.
In 17 9 6 Pinckney was the Federalist candidate for vice-president, and in1797-1801he was a Federalist representative in Congress.
Livingston and Aaron Burr; and such Federalist control as there was from time to time after 1799 depended upon coalition with one or other of these groups.
After serving in the Maryland convention which ratified for that state the Federal Constitution, and there vigorously opposing ratification, though afterwards he was an ardent Federalist, he became in 1791 chief judge of the Maryland general court, which position he resigned in 1796 for that of an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The history is notable for its painstaking accuracy and candour, but the later volumes have a strong Federalist bias.
In 1816 Monroe was chosen president of the United States; he received 183 electoral votes, and Rufus King, his Federalist opponent, 34.
Unwisely imprisoned in 1919-20, and who now swept the boards in Croatia with a Republican and Federalist programme and induced his party of 50 to absent itself from the Constituent: (2) the Croat and Slovene clericals, who strongly opposed centralization, and (3) the 58 Communists, led by a small group of extreme theorists, but owing their strength to the subversive elements in the Backa, Macedonia and Montenegro and the secret aid of the Carlists in Vienna and Budapest.
In presidential campaigns the state has been Federalist, 1792-1800; Democratic Republican, 1804; Federalist, 1808-1812; Democratic Republican, 1816-1820; Adams (Republican), 1824-1828; National Republican, 1832; Democratic, 1836; Whig, 1840-1848; Democratic, 1852; and Republican since 1856.
He served in the United States Senate as a Federalist from 1790 to 1791 and was again elected in 1797, but resigned in January 1798 on account of illhealth.
After the battle of Leuctra the philo-Laconian party was expelled with Mantineian help. Tegea henceforth took an active part in the revival of the Arcadian League and the prosecution of the war in alliance with Thebes against Sparta (371-362), and the ultimate defection of Mantineia confirmed it in its federalist tendencies.
1789-1796Federalist 1796-1797 -1797-1799 1799-1801 -1801-1802 1802-1805 Federalist 1805-1808 1808- 1811-1811 -1814 1814-1817 1820 1820- 1821-1821 -1822Democratic-Republican 1822- 1822-1823 Democratic-Republican 1823-1824 ?1824-1827Federalist 1827-1830 „ 1830-1833 American-Republican 1833-1836 Democrat 1836-1837 -1837-1841 Whig 1841-1845 -1845-1846 1846- 1846-1847 1847-1851 Democrat 1851-1855 -1855-1859 Whig-Know-Nothing 1859-1863 Democrat 1863-1865 Republican 1865-1871 Democrat 1871-1875 -1875-1879 1879-1883 -1883-1887 1887-1891 -1891-1895 1895 Republican 1895-1897 Democrat1897-1901 1901-1905 Republican 1905-1909 „ 1909 „ Bibliog Ra Phy.
From 1801 to 1802 and from 1806 to 1807 he was a member of the Council of Appointment, and realizing the power this body possessed through its influence over the selection of a vast number of state, county and municipal officers, he secured in 1801, while his uncle was governor, the removal of a number of Federalist office-holders, in order to strengthen the Republican organization by new appointments.
It was his plan to fill the more important offices with Republicans, as they had been excluded from appointive office during the Federalist ascendancy, and to divide the smaller places between the parties somewhat in accordance with their relative strength.'
Opponents of a second war with Great Britain had revived the Federalist organization, and Federalists from eleven states met in New York and agreed to support Clinton, not on account of his war views, which were not in accord with their own, but as a protest against the policy of Madison.
The Federal Constitution was ratified by Massachusetts by only a small majority on the 6th of February 1788, after its rejection had been at one time imminent; but Massachusetts became a strong Federalist state.
The Federalist preference for England over France was strong in Massachusetts, and her sentiment was against the war with England of 1812-15.
The Federalist domination had been succeeded by Whig rule in the state; but after the death of the great Whig, Daniel Webster, in 1852, all parties disintegrated, re-aligning themselves gradually in an aggressive anti-slavery party and the temporizing Democratic party.
He returned to New York in 1798, resumed the practice of his profession, re-entered politics, and sat in the United States Senate as a Federalist from 1800 to 1803.
A passage in The Federalist suggests the motives of the convention as follows: "As the accuracy of the census to be obtained by Congress will necessarily depend in a considerable degree on the disposition if not co-operation of the states, it is of great importance that the states should feel as little bias as possible to swell or reduce the amount of their numbers.
In support of the constitution, however, there arose the Federalist party under the able leadership of Alexander Hamilton.
Jay was elected in 1795 and re-elected in 1798, but in 1801 the brief Federalist regime in the state came to an end with the election of George Clinton for a seventh term.
The first break came in the spring of 1804 when Burr, who had incurred the enmity of his Republican colleagues in 1800 by seeking Federalist votes in the electoral college at Jefferson's expense, became an independent candidate for governor against Morgan Lewis.
Politically this opposition had the effect of temporarily reviving the Federalist party, which secured control of the legislature, and gave the electoral vote of the state in 1812 to De Witt Clinton, whom the Federalists had accepted as a candidate to oppose Madison for re-election on the war issue.
According to the theory expounded in the Federalist, the individual states did not, after the formation of the constitution, remain completely sovereign: they were left in possession of certain attributes of sovereignty, while others were lodged in the Federal government; while there existed many states, there was but one sovereign.
As he was a Federalist he was severely criticised and censured for this defeat and resigned from the army.
Proscribed with the Girondists on the 2nd of June 1793, he succeeded in escaping, and took refuge in Normandy, where he contributed to organize a federalist insurrection against the Convention, which was speedily suppressed.
For the history of the federalist movement in Normandy, see L.
He edited The Works of Alexander Hamilton (9 vols., 1885-1886) and The Federalist (1891).
The city was the literary centre of Federalist ideas in the latter part of the 18th century, being the home of Lemuel Hopkins, John Trumbull, Joel Barlow and David Humphreys, the leading members of a group of authors known as the " Hartford Wits "; and in 1814-1815 the city was the meeting-place of the famous Hartford Convention, an event of great importance in the history of the Federalist party.
The War of 1812, with the Embargo Acts (1807-1813), which were so destructive of New England's commerce, thoroughly aroused the Federalist leaders in this part of the country against the National government as administered by the Democrats, and in 1814, when the British were not only threatening a general invasion of their territory but had actually occupied a part of the Maine coast, and the National government promised no protection, the legislature of Massachusetts invited the other New England states to join with her in sending delegates to a convention which should meet at Hartford to consider their grievances, means of preserving their resources, measures of protection against the British, and the advisability of taking measures to bring about a convention of delegates from all the United States for the purpose of revising the Federal constitution.
This paper was very influential in shaping public opinion in the years preceding the War of Independence; after the war it was successively Federalist, Whig and Republican.
The Mexican government gave way, threatened by Federalist risings and secessions of states, which culminated in 1841.
But the new Congress was too Federalist for Santa Anna, and he retired, leaving the reins to Nicolas Bravo, under whom a new Centralist constitution was established (1843).
National elections in New Hampshire were carried by the Federalists until 1816, except in 1804 when President Thomas Jefferson won by a small majority; but within this period of Federalist supremacy in national politics the Democrat-Republicans elected the governor from 1805 to 1812 inclusive except in 1809.
In 1816 the Democrats won both state and national elections; and out of the transition from Federalist to Democratic control, which was effected under the leadership of William Plumer (1759-1850), a prominent politician in New Hampshire for half a century, a United States senator from 1802 to 1807 and governor of the state in1812-1813and 1816-1819, arose the famous Dartmouth College Case.
Heretofore the Federalist regime had taxed the people to support the Congregational Church, but now the Baptists, Methodists and Universalists joined the Democrats, and in 1819 this state support was abolished by the " Toleration Act."
It was also the home, during his last years, of Oliver Wolcott (1726-1797); of Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge (1774-1835), an officer on the American side in the War of Independence and later (from 1801 to 1817) a Federalist member of Congress; and of Lyman Beecher, who was pastor of the First Congregational church of Litchfield from 1810 to 1826.
On the other hand, the old Federalist nationalistic element was soon to emerge first as National Republicans, then as Whigs, and finally as Republicans.
In 1845 an attempt to restore the federal union failed; in 1851 Carrera defeated the Federalist forces of Honduras and Salvador at La Arada near Chiquimula, and was recognized as the pacificator of the republic. In 1851 a new constitution was promulgated, and Carrera was appointed president till 1856, a dignity which was in 18J4 bestowed upon him for life.
European federalists have recently suffered a major set back with Sweden's refusal to be ensnared by the euro.
Perhaps only a German, or a committed federalist, would be happy to proclaim a lack of democratic accountability as a virtue.
Arthur Fenner,' Federalist and Democratic Re publican.
From then until 1850 it was controlled by the Federalist or Whig parties.