The species between Caravaya and the headwaters of the Huallaga yield very little of the febrifuge alkaloid.
But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine.
The sulphate of quinine and the cinchona febrifuge thus produced are issued for the most part to medical officers in the various provinces, to gaols, and to the authorities of native states; but a large and increasing amount is disposed of in the form of 5-grain packets, costing a farthing each, through the medium of the post-offices.
The cultivation of the cinchona, several species of which have been introduced from South America and naturalized in the Sikkim Himalaya, promises to yield at a comparatively small cost an ample supply of the febrifuge extracted from its bark.
The bark has been employed for dyeing yellow and for tanning, and was formerly in popular repute as a febrifuge and tonic. The powder of the dried nuts was at one time prescribed as a sternutatory (to encourage sneezing) in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia.
Borra, rough hair), a herb (Borago oJJicinalis) with bright blue flowers and hairy leaves and stem, considered to have some virtue as a cordial and a febrifuge; used as an ingredient in salads or in making claret-cup, &c.
In consequence of the high price of the alkaloid an attempt was made some years ago by the Government of India to manufacture from cinchona bark a cheap febrifuge which should represent the alkaloids contained in the bark and form a substitute for quinine.
This mixture is known as cinchona febrifuge, and is prepared chiefly from C. succirubra, which succeeds better in India than the other species in cultivation, and grows at a lower elevation, being consequently procurable in large quantities at a comparatively low price.
This is also the case with the cinchona febrifuge prepared from C. succirubra.