B.) Laristan, a sub-province of the province of Fars in Persia, bounded E.
Fars, q.v.), the south-western part of Iran (Persia), named from the inhabitants, the Iranian people of the Parsa (Fars); their name was pronounced by the Ionians Persair with change from a to e, and this form has become dominant in Greek and in the modern European languages.
FARS (the name Farsistan is not used), one of the five mam- likats (great provinces) of Persia, extending along the northern shore of the Persian Gulf and bounded on the west by Arabistan, on the north by Isfahan and on the east by Kerman.
The mountains of Fars may be considered as a continuation of the Zagros and run parallel to the shores of the Persian Gulf.
The highest of the mountains of Fars (14,000 ft.) is the Kuh Dina in the northwestern part of the province.
The above sixty districts are grouped into eighteen subprovinces under governors appointed by the governor-general of Fars, but the towns of Bushire, Lingah and Bander Abbasi, together with the villages in their immediate neighbourhood, form a separate government known as that of the "Persian Gulf Ports" (Benadir i Khalij i Fars), under a governor appointed from Teheran.
MAIMAND, a town in the province of Fars, Persia, a few miles east of Firuzabad and about 70 m.
NIRIZ, or NAIRIZ, a district and town in the province of Fars, Persia.
It used to be under the government of Fars, but is (since about 1892) the seat of the governor of the Persian Gulf ports, who is responsible to the central government, and has under his jurisdiction the principal ports of the Gulf and their dependencies.
From Kermanshah to Fars with a breadth of 100 to 140 m.
JAHRUM, a town and district of Persia in the province of Fars, S.E.
The atabegs of Fars, of Azerbaijan, of Syria, &c. The title was first given to Nizam ul-Mulk and expressed the relation in which he stood to the prince, - as lala, " tutor."
Fars series; marls, clays and sand stones with limestones and inter bedded strata of rock gypsum.
Thence he marched into Fars and Kirman, where he maintained peace and kept the inhabitants in their allegiance to Ali.
The new pretender entered Fars and Ahwaz (Susiana), and it was in this last province near Tostar (Shuster) that Hajjaj came up with him, after receiving from Syria the reinforcements which he had demanded in all haste from the caliph.
Ahwaz (Khuzistan), Fars and Kirman were easily subdued, but in Khorasan the Azd could not prevail over the Tamim, who were loyal to the caliph.
Ash`ath, Fars; Abu 'Aun, Egypt.
In the meanwhile Ibrahim had not only gained possession of Basra, Ahwaz and Fars, but had even occupied Wasit.
Sahl, governor of Media, Fars, Ahwaz, Arabia and Irak.
The empire was by this time practically reduced to the province of Bagdad; Khorasan and Transoxiana were in the hands of the Samanids, Fars in those of the Buyids; Kirman and Media were under independent sovereigns; the Hamdanids possessed Mesopotamia; the Sajids Armenia and Azerbaijan; the Ikshidites Egypt; as we have seen, the Fatimites Africa, the Carmathians Arabia.
Some of the ranges west of the Central Range, which form the highlands of Kurdistan, Luristan, Bakhtiari and Fars, and are parallel to it, end near the Persian Gulf; others follow the Central Range, and take a direction to the east at some point between Kermgn and the sea on the western frontier of Baluchistan.
The fourth is a comparatively small area on the western frontier containing the basin of Lake Urmia, shut off from the rest of the inland drainage, and the fifth area takes in a part of Baluchistan, most of Kermgn, a part of Fars, all Yezd, Isfahan, Kashan, Kum, Irak, Khamseh, Kazvin, Teheran, Samnan, Damghan, Shahrud, Khorasan and the central desert regions.
Among others the wandering Turkish tribes in Fars have the credit of possessing good steeds.
In the environs of Kashan and in Fars, chiefly at Maimand, much rose-water is made, and a considerable quantity of it is exported by way of Bushire to India and Java.
Lenjan (near Isfahan), and some localities in Fars and Azerbaijan.
The tumbaku for export is chiefly produced in the central districts round about Isfahan and near Kashan, while the tumbaku of Shiraz, Fessa, and Darab in Fars, considered the best in Persia, is not much appreciated abroad.
In May 1892 the Persian government concluded a contract with the Imperial Bank of Persia, established by British royal charter in 1889, for a loan of 500,000 at 6%, repayable in the course of forty years, and guaranteed by the customs of Fars and the Persian Gulf ports.
This loan was for 223/4 million roubles (~2,4oo,ooo) at 5% interest, guaranteed by all the Persian customs with the exception of those of Fars and the Persian Gulf ports, and repayable in the course of seventy-five years.
The last ilnportant dynasty in Persia prior to the Mongol invasion was that of the Saigharids in Fars, founded by the descendants of a Turkish general Salaghar, who had formerly been a Turkoman leader and ultimately became chamberlain to Toghrul Beg.
Modud, who made himself independent in Fars in 1148.
The Mozaffarids, who ruled roughly from 1313 to 1399 in Fars, Kerman and Kurdistan, were descended from the Amir Mozaffar, or Muzaffar, who held a post as governor under the Ilkhan ruler.
His son Mobariz ud-din Mahommed, who followed him in 1313, became governor in Fars under Abu Said, in Kerman in 1340, and subsequently made himself independent at Fars and Shiraz (1353) and in Isfahan.
There were Timurid governors of Fars under Shah Rukh, Pir Mahommed (1405-1409), Iskendar (140914,4), Ibrahim (1415-1434) and Abdallah (1434); in other parts of Persia many of the Timurid family held governorships of greater or less importance.
After him Abu Said, grandson of Miran Shah, and once governor of Fars, became a candidate for empire, and allied himself with the Uzbeg Tatars, seized Bokhara, entered Khorasan, and waged war upon the Turkoman tribe aforesaid, which, since the invasion of Azerbaijan, had, under Jahan Shah, overrun Irak, Fars and Kermgn, and pillaged Herat.
Kum and Tauris or Tabriz (then the capital) were also visited by the Italian envoys following in the royal suite; and the incidental notice of these cities, added to Contarinis formal statement that the extensive country of U~suncassan is bounded by the Ottoman Empire and by Caramania, and that Siras (Shiraz) is comprehended in it, proves that at least Azerbaijan, Irak, and the main part of the provinces to the south, inclusive of Fars, were within the dominions of the reigning monarch.
The subsequent statement that his son, Sultan Ali, was seized, in company with two younger brothers, by Yaqub, one of the descendants of their grandfather Uzun }.iasan, who, jealous of the numerous disciples that resorted to Ardebil, confined them to the hill fort of Istakhr in Fars, seems to indicate a second interpretation of the passage just extracted from Purchas, and that there is confusion of persons and incident somewhere.
He was summoned to Shiraz to put down rebellion in Fars; and before he could drive out the Uzbegs, he had to secure himself against Turkish inroads threatening from the west.
Lutf Ali Khan took refuge with the hospitable chief of Tabbas in the heart of Khorasan, where he succeeded in collecting a few followers; but advancing into Fars, he was again defeated, and forced to take refuge at Kandahar.
As the hostile faction pressed the necessity of the ex-ministers removal from the capital; he was offered the choice of the government of Fars, Isfahan or Kum.
Serious rioting arose only in Shiraz and Fars, where some persons lost their lives and a number of caravans were looted.
London capitalists offered to float a loan for 1,250,000 at 5% and on the guarantee of the customs of Fars and the Persian Gulf ports, and to give 1,025,000, or 82% to the Persian government.
Guaranteed by all the customs receipts of Persia, excepting those for Fars and the Persian Gulf ports.
At Bushire, on the 1st of December, the Persian governor of Fars, Ala ad-daula, committed a breach of diplomatic etiquette which induced Lord Curzon to sail away without landing.
It is the chief port for the Persian province of Laristan (under Fars), and has a thriving trade with Bahrein and the Arab coast.
The produce of Ispahan and Fars is carried for exportation to Bushire, and that of Khorasan and Kirman and Yezd partly to Bushire and partly to Bandar-Abbas.
ABADEH, a town of Persia, in the province of Fars, situated at an elevation of 6200 ft.
DARAB (originally Darabgerd), a district of the province of Fars in Persia.
M.) Baidawi (`Abdallah ibn `Umar al-Baidawi), Mahommedan critic, was born in Fars, where his father was chief judge, in the time of the Atabek ruler Abu Bakr ibn Sa'd (1226-1260).
BEHBAHAN, a walled town of Persia in the province of Fars, pleasantly situated in the midst of a highly cultivated plain, 128 m.
It is the capital of the KuhgiluBehba,han sub-province of Fars and has a population of about 10,000.