Berar also suffered from the famines of 1897 and 1900.
The country was also visited by a succession of famines and floods, and in 1348 the Black Death swept over Europe like a terrible scourge.
In 1901 the population was 9,723,301, showing a decrease of 20% in the decade owing to the great famines of1897-1898and 1900-1901.
The few records during the middle ages are borne out by what is known of famines and pestilence.
It suffered in the famines of 1866, 1874-1875 and 1896-1897.
Owing to the uncertainty of the periodical rains in Cutch, the country is liable to severe famines, and it has suffered greatly from plague.
- Amongst the great famines of history may be named the following: 13.c.436 Famine at Rome, when thousands of starving people threw themselves into the Tiber.
According to tradition this was one of the severest famines ever known.
Famines seem to recur in India at periodical intervals, which have been held to be in some way dependent on the sun-spot period.
In the 140 years since Warren Hastings initiated British rule in India, there have been nineteen famines and five severe scarcities.
21); indeed, so long as the Hebrews were an agricultural people, in a land often ravaged by severe famines, the law of the Sabbatical year could not have been observed.
Bellary is subject to disastrous storms and hurricanes, and to famines arising from a series of bad seasons.
There were memorable famines in 1 75 1, 1 793, 1803, 1833, 1854, 1866, 1877 and 1896.
The inhabitants numbered 488,022 in 1901, being a decrease of 13% during the decade, due to the famines of 1899-1900.
This represents the second advent as heralded by a succession of signs which are unmistakable precursors of its appearance, such as wars, earthquakes, famines, the destruction of Jerusalem and the like.
In1904-1905there were famines and some native discontent in the south of Tunisia; but in general the country has prospered amazingly under the French protec torate.
But only local famines are likely to arise from this cause.
Legislative interference with agricultural operations or with the distribution of food-supplies, currency restrictions and failure of transport, which have all caused famines in the past, are unlikely thus to operate again; nor is it probable that the modern speculators who attempt to make "corners" in wheat could produce the evil effects contemplated in the old statutes against forestallers and regrators.
Such local famines as may occur in the 10th century will probably be attributable to natural causes.
Still, every year makes it less likely that the world will see a renewal of the great famines of the past, and it is only the countries where civilization is still backward that are in much danger of even a local famine.
The experience gained in the great famines of 1898 and 1901 has been garnered by these commissions, and stored up in the "famine codes" of each separate province, where rules are provided for the treatment of famine directly a crop failure is seen to be probable.
Owing to the extension of railways, in the famines of 1898 and 1901 there was never any dearth of food in any famine-stricken tract; and the only difficulty was to find enough rolling-stock to cope with the demand.
It is sometimes alleged by native Indian politicians that famines are growing worse under British rule, because India is becoming exhausted by an excessive land revenue, a civil service too expensive for her needs, military expenditure on imperial objects, and the annual drain of some 15,000,000 for "home charges."
See Cornelius Walford, "On the Famines of the World, Past and Present" (Journal of the Statistical Society, 1878-1879); Romesh C. Dutt, Famines in India (1900); Robert Wallace, Famine in India (1900); George Campbell, Famines in India (1769-1788); Chronological List of Famines for all India (Madras Administration Report, 1885); J.
The famines of the 'forties, with their subsequent political and economic difficulties, transferred to America millions of the Irish, whose genius for organization in politics has not fallen short of their zeal for religion.
It had at last been recognized that such famines must be expected to occur at no very long intervals of time, and that the cost of relief operations must not be met by increasing the permanent debt on the country, but by the creation of a famine relief and a famine insurance fund.
This excessive dependence upon a single industry, which is in its turn dependent upon the accident of the seasons, upon a favourable or unfavourable monsoon, has been held to be one of the main causes of the frequent famines which ravage India.
The fodder famines that accompanied the great famines of 1897 and 1900 proved little short of disastrous to the cattle in the affected provinces.
(1) See Noah Webster's History of Epidemic Diseases, 8vo (2 vols., London, 1800) (a work which makes no pretension to medical learning, but exhibits the history of epidemics in connexion with physical disasters - as earthquakes, famines, &c.); Lersch, Kleine Pest-Chronik (8vo, 1880) (a convenient short compendium, but not always accurate); "Athanasii Kircheri Chronologia Pestium" (to A.D.
But during its massacres, jacqueries, plagues and famines, the cities of Italy, growing rich with trade and manufactures, were in their turn the centres of progress, this time in a new direction, toward the recovery of the antique past and the development of art.
Considerable losses were caused by the famines of 1897-1898 and 1899-1900, which were severely felt, especially in Bhopal and Malwa.
A province subject to such conditions can hardly be free from famine or scarcity for any length of time; accordingly it was visited by two famines, one of unprecedented severity, and one scarcity, in the decade 1891-1901.
Thus the terrible prevalence of poverty and want; the successive famines; the mistakes of the government; the scandals of the Parc aux Cerfs; and the parlesnents ~
He succeeded John III., and occupied the papal chair during the incursions of the Lombards, and during the series of plagues and famines which followed these invasions.
Owing to the irrigation, total failure of crops and consequent famines are unknown, unless among the Kirghiz shepherds.
This decrease was due partly to the famines of 1896-1897 and 1900-1901, partly to the epidemics of cholera and fever which accompanied them, and partly to the plague which attacked the state in as great measure as the surrounding presidency.
In the face of great natural catastrophes, such as river inundations, famines, tidal waves and cyclones of the lower provinces of Bengal, the religious instinct works with a vitality unknown in European countries.
But there can be little doubt that the population of England and Wales increased very slowly for centuries, owing largely to want of intercommunication, which led to famines, more or less severeit being a common occurrence that, while one county, with a good harvest, was enjoying abundance, the people of the adjoining one were starving.
Famines have caused widespread suffering in all countries and ages.
A list of the chief famines recorded by history is given farther on.
The regular course of trade is apt to be deflected by famines in India or Japan.
But before the twentieth century, this was not the case and actual famines were much more common.