These crude ideas of Cromwell's character were extinguished by Macaulay's irresistible logic, by the publication of Cromwell's letters by Carlyle in 1845, which showed Cromwell clearly to be "not a man of falsehoods, but a man of truth"; and by Gardiner, whom, however, it is somewhat difficult to follow when he represents Cromwell as "a typical Englishman."
These show that the very few facts known with certainty were freely supplemented by a number of ill-founded conjectures, and sometimes even by " figments and falsehoods, which in the earliest times, no less than nowadays, used to be put forth by raw smatterers and copyists to be swallowed of men."
Ibn 'Abbas, a cousin of Mahomet, and the chief source of the traditional exegesis of the Koran, has, on theological and other grounds, given currency to a number of falsehoods; and at least some of his pupils have emulated his example.
But if they venture on such falsehoods while I am still alive, how much more when I am gone will those who come after me dare to do so!"
The ignorance of his colleagues, the weakness and insignificance of his opponents, the frankness of his falsehoods, and the dazzling and self- confident limitations of this man raise him to the head of the army.