Inchkeith, an island in the fairway of the Firth of Forth, 22 m.
The Venetians had taken up the buoys which marked the fairway, and had placed a light squadron on the lagoon.
The question of a fairway from ocean to harbour has been a difficult one at nearly every port on the African coast.
But unremitting efforts have been made to maintain a sufficient fairway up to Hamburg.
The sweepers continued their labours night after night, gradually extending the fairway up which heavy craft could safely venture.
M., and has communication with the open sea by a fairway, a mile and a half wide, which never freezes, and with the tide gives access to the largest vessels.
Until 1894 the fairway up to Bremen had a minimum depth of little over 8 ft.; thereafter important works were undertaken, the minimum depth was made 18 ft., and the importance of Bremen as a port was greatly enhanced.
From time to time the torpedo-craft tried to run in past the batteries, several attempts were made to block the harbour entrance by sinking vessels in the fairway, and free and deadly use was made by both sides of submarine mines.
The original scheme included a high-level main basin covering an area of 55 ac., with an entrance lock from the fairway, a dry or graving dock 750 ft.
On the west side of the Forth Bridge, in the fairway, lies the rocky islet of Bimar with a lighthouse, and immediately to the east is the island of Inchgarvie (Gaelic, "the rough island"), which once contained a castle used as a State prison, the ruins of which were removed to make way for one of the piers of the Forth Bridge.
But it was not until 1904 that the fairway was deepened sufficiently to allow mail steamers of the largest class to enter the harbour.
The fairway between this bank, which begins to the west of Dumbarton, and the southern shore constitutes the safest anchorage in the upper firth.
Around being then only three fathoms deep. Lying in the fairway of vessels making or leaving the Tay and Forth, besides ports farther north, it was a constant menace to navigation.