The grant finally came into the possession of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, and in 1746 a stone was erected at the source of the north branch of the Potomac to mark the western limit of the grant.
The lords and the Scots vehemently took Manchester's part; but the Commons eventually sided with Cromwell, appointed Sir Thomas Fairfax general of the New Model Army, and passed two self-denying ordinances, the second of which, ordering all members of both houses to lay down their commissions within forty days, was accepted by the lords on the 3rd of April 1645.
He took Devizes and Laycock House, Winchester and Basing House, and rejoined Fairfax in October at Exeter, and accompanied him to Cornwall, where he assisted in the defeat of Hopton's forces and in the suppression of the royalists in the west.
On the 9th of January 1646 he surprised Lord Wentworth's brigade at Bovey Tracey, and was present with Fairfax at the fall of Exeter on the 9th of April.
He was present again with Fairfax at the capitulation of Oxford on the 24th of June, which practically terminated the Civil War, when he used his influence in favour of granting lenient terms. He then removed with his family from Ely to Drury Lane, London, and about a year later to King Street, Westminster.
Fairfax was appointed sole commander-in-chief on the 19th of July, the soldiers levied to oppose the army were dismissed, and the command of the city militia was again restored to the committee approved by the army.
On the 28th he was sent to Ely for the defence of the eastern counties against the king's advance; and on the 10th of June, upon Fairfax's petition, he was named by the Commons lieutenant-general, joining Fairfax on the 13th with six hundred horse.
He urged Fairfax to attack the Scots at once in their own country and to forestall their The invasion; but Fairfax refused and resigned, and battles of Cromwell was appointed by parliament, on the 26th Dunbar of June 1650, commander-in-chief of all the forces and of the Commonwealth.
After the battle of Marston Moor it was taken by Fairfax, and in 1648 it was ordered to be dismantled.
He was one of the chief leaders in the second Civil War, but met with no success, and on the 27th of August, together with Lord Norwich, he surrendered to Fairfax at Colchester on promise of quarter for life.'
Apparently his views changed as the revolutionary tendency of the Presbyterian party became more pronounced, for in 1648/9 he addressed to Lord Fairfax A Religious and Loyal Protestation ...
GEORGE MASON (1725-1792), American statesman, was born in Stafford county (the part which is now Fairfax county), Virginia, in 1725.
In July 1774 he wrote for a convention in Fairfax county a series of resolutions known as the Fairfax Resolves, in which he advocated a congress of the colonies and suggested non-intercourse with Great Britain, a policy subsequently adopted by Virginia and later by the Continental Congress.
From 1776 to 1788 he represented Fairfax county in the Virginia Assembly.
During the Civil War General Goring quartered his troops at Totnes, and Fairfax also made it his temporary station.
During the Civil War James was taken prisoner by Fairfax (1646), but contrived to escape to Holland in 1648.
There are interesting monuments of members of the Fairfax family and others.
Returning to London with the army, he was installed again by Fairfax in the chair (6th August), and all votes passed during his absence were annulled.
2 William Franklin served on the Canadian frontier with Pennsylvania troops, becoming captain in 1750; was in the post-office in 1 7541 75 6; went to England with his father in 1758; was admitted to legal practice in 1758; in 1763, recommended by Lord Fairfax, became governor of New Jersey; he left the Whig for the Tory party; and in the War of Independence was a faithful loyalist, much to the pain and regret of his father, who, however, was reconciled to him in part in 1784.
General Fairfax and General Lambert are mentioned as occupants after his death, and later the property was let, William Penn of Pennsylvania being among those who leased it.
FITZHUGH LEE (1835-1905), American cavalry general, was born at Clermont, in Fairfax county, Virginia, on the 19th of November 1835.
In 1643 it stood a siege of six weeks, but the new governor Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Baron Fairfax, obliged the Royalist army to retreat by opening the sluices and placing the surrounding country under water.
The most notable event in the history of the town was its siege by Fairfax in 1648, when the raw levies of the Royalists in the second civil war held his army at bay for nearly eleven weeks, only surrendering when starved out, and when Cromwell's victory in the north made further resistance useless.
Under orders from the former, Captain Fairfax, RN., occupied Port Said on the night of 19th August, and Commander Edwards, R.N., proceeded down the canal, taking possession of the gares and dredgers, while Captain Fitzroy, R.N., occupied Ismailia after slight opposition.
Margravine Road recalls the existence of Bradenburg House, a riverside mansion built by Sir Nicholas Crispe in the time of Charles I., used as the headquarters of General Fairfax in 1647 during the civil wars, and occupied in 1792 by the margrave of Bradenburg-Anspach and Bayreuth and his wife, and in 1820 by Caroline, consort of George IV.
Lawrence was a son-in-law of William Fairfax, proprietor of the neighbouring plantation of Belvoir, and agent for the extensive Fairfax lands in the colony.
Lawrence had served with Fairfax at Cartagena, and had made the acquaintance of Admiral Edward Vernon, from whom Mount Vernon was named.
In 1748, however, through the influence of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, the head of the family, who had come to America to live, Washington, then only sixteen years of age, was appointed surveyor of the Fairfax property; and an appointment as public surveyor soon followed.
He retired (17th of February) to Pendennis Castle at Falmouth, and on the approach of Fairfax (2nd of March) to Scilly, where he remained with Hyde till the 16th of April.
MOUNT VERNON, the former home of George Washington, in Fairfax county, Virginia, U.S.A., on the Potomac river, 15 m.
Lawrence left it (1752) to his widow Anne Fairfax (who in the same year married George Lee) with the proviso that it should pass at her death to George Washington, who meanwhile rented the estate, gaining full possession at her death in 1761.
MARY SOMERVILLE (1780-1872), British scientific writer, was the daughter of Admiral Sir William George Fairfax, and was born on the 26th of December 1780 in the manse of Jedburgh, the house of her mother's sister, wife of Dr Thomas Somerville (1741-1830), author of My Own Life and Times, whose son was her second husband.
It has been assumed to be Leicester, which was captured by the Royalists in May 1645, and recovered by Fairfax in the next month.
JAMES MURRAY MASON (1798-1871), American political leader, was born in Fairfax county, Virginia, on the 3rd of November 1798, the grandson of George Mason (1725-1792).
BATTLE OF MARSTON MOOR, was fought on the 2nd of July 1644 on a moor (now enclosed) seven miles west of York, between the Royalist army under Prince Rupert and the Parliamentary and Scottish armies under the earl of Manchester, Lord Fairfax and Lord Leven.
On the other side the cavalry of the Eastern Association under Lieut.-General Cromwell and that of the Scots under Major-General Leslie (Lord Newark) formed the left, the infantry of the Eastern Association under Major-General Crawford, of the Scots under Lord Leven, and of the Yorkshire Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax was in the centre and the Yorkshire cavalry under Sir Thomas Fairfax was on the right wing.
But the Scots on the right of the foot held firm against Lucas's attacks, and Cromwell and Leslie with their cavalry passed along the rear of the Royal army, guided by Sir Thomas Fairfax (who though wounded in the rout of his Yorkshire horse.
Then, on the ground where Goring had routed Fairfax, Cromwell and Leslie won an easy victory over Goring's scattered and disordered horsemen.