Porcelain and faIence 27,000 - -
Certain Cretan coffins, and the faience industry of Cnossus.
7.-Faience Figure Of The Goddess, With Serpent Attributes, Cnossus.
The history of Kito warewhich, being for the most part faience, belongs to an entirely different category from the Hizen porcelains K -~ spoken of aboveis the history of individual ceramists 10 0.
Raku-yaki is essentially the domestic faience of Japan; for, being entirely hand-made and fired at a very low temperature, R ~ its manufacture offers few difficulties, and has consea quently been carried on by amateurs in their own homes at various places throughout the country.
The faience is thick and clumsy, having soft, brittle and very light pale.
The raku faience owed much of its popularity to the patronage of the tea clubs.
He immediately utilized the new method, and produced many beautiful examples of ~jewelled faience, having close, hard pate, yellowish-white, or brownish-white, glaze covered with a network of fine crackle, and sparse decoration in pure fullbodied colorsred, green, gold and silver.
Genuine examples of his faience have always been highly prized, and numerous imitations were subsequently produced, all stamped with the ideograph Ninsei.
After Ninseis time, the most renowned ceramists of the Awata factories were Kenzan (1688-1740); Ebisei, a contemporary of Kenzan; Dhachi (1751-1763), who subsequently moved to Kiyomizu-zaka, another part of Kieto, the faience of which constitutes the Kiyomizu-yaki mentioned above; Kinkzan (1745-1760); Hezan (I69o-~-I72I); Taizan (1760-1800); Bizan (1810-1838); and Tanzan, who was still living in 1909.
In the term Kiyomizu-yaki may be included roughly all the faience of KiOto, with the exception of the three varieties described above.
Eisen was the first to manufacture porcelain (as distinguished from faience) in Kieto, and this branch of the art was carried to a high standard of excellence by Eiraku, whose speciality was a rich coralred glaze with finel~~ executed decoration in gold.
In point of fact, the production of faience decorated with goid and colored enamels may be said to have commenced at the beginning of the 1 9th century in Satsuma.
Setting aside, however, the strong improbability that a style of decoration so widely practised and so highly esteemed could have remained unknown during a century and a half to experts working for one of the most puissant chieftains in Japan, we have the evidence of trustworthy traditions and written records that enamelled faience was made by the potters at Tatsumonjithe principal factory of Satsuma-ware in early daysas far back as the year 1676.
He summoned to his fief the painter Tangena pupil of the renowned Tanyu, who died in 1674and employed him to paint faience or to furnish designs for the ceramists of Tatsumonji.
At the same time a strong impetus was given to the production of faience at Tadenothen the chief factory in Satsumaowing to the patronage of Shimazu Tamanobu, lord of the province.
To this increase in production and to the more elaborate application of vitrifiable enamels may be attributed the erroneous idea that Satsuma faience decorated with gold and colored enamels had its origin at the close of the 18th century.
But in Bokus time, and indeed as long as the factories flourished, many other kinds of faience were produced, the principal having rich black or fiamb glazes, while a few were green or yellow monochromes.
Most of the finest pieces of enamelled faience were the work of artists at the Tadeno factory, while the best specimens of other kinds were by the artists of Tatsumonji.
It became slate-colored or bluish-brown faience, wit!
In Japan they were most closely approached by the faience TakatorL of Takatori in the province of Chikuzen.
The pdte of this faience was of the finest description, and the technique in every respect faultless.
Banko faience is a universal favorite with foreign collectors.
Chocolate or dove-colored grounds with delicate diapers in gold and engobe; brown or black faience with white, yellow and pink designs incised or in relief; pottery curiously and deftly marbled by combinations of various colored clays these and many other kinds are to be found, all, however, presenting one common feature, namely, skilful finger-moulding and a slight roughening of the surface as though it had received the impression of coarse linen or crape before baking.
He took for his models the raku faience of KiOto, the masterpieces of Ninsei and Kenzan, the rococc wares of Korea, the enamelled porcelain of China, and the blue-andwhite ware of Delft.
The chief of the former is faience, having light grey, close Izumc pate and yellow or straw-colored glaze, with or without erwle to which is applied decoration in gold and green enamel.
The former faience had its origin at the close of the 17th century, the latter at the close of the 18th; but the Izumoyaki now procurable is a modern production.
The Yatsushiro faience is a production of the province of Higo, where a number of Korean potters settled at the close of the ~ hi 17th century.
As for faience and pottery, howeverr the Chinese despised them in all forms, with one notable exception, the yi-hsing-yao, known in the Occident as boccaro.
In short, the artistic output of Chinese kilns in their palmiest days was, not faience or pottery,, but porcelain, whether of soft or hard paste.
No faience produced either in China or any other Oriental country can dispute the palm with really representative specimens of Satsuma ware.
The faience of the Kioto artists never reached quite to the level of the Satsuma in quality of pdte and glowing mellowness of decoration; their materials were slightly inferior.
A production so degraded as the early Makuzu faience could not possibly have a lengthy vogue.
The modern faience of Ito TOzan of KiOto, decorated with color under the glaze, is incomparably more artistic than the Tokyo asahi-yaki, from which, nevertheless, the KiOto master doubtless borrowed some ideas.
At the industrial exhibition in RiOto Ware ~, (1895) the first results of their efforts were shown, Owari attracting attention at once, In medieval times Owari was celebrated for faience glazes of various colors, much affected by the tea-clubs, but its staple manufacture from the beginning of the 19th century was porcelain decorated with blue under the glaze, the best specimens of which did not approach their Chinese prototypes in fineness of pdte, purity of glaze or richness of color.
Its walls are decorated with faience taken from an ancient Tunisian palace.
The municipal art gallery contains an altar-piece by Girolamo da Treviso (who also painted a fresco in the Chiesa della Commenda), a wooden St Jerome by Donatello, and a bust of the young St John by Antonio Rossellino (?), and some fine specimens of majolica, a variety of which, faience, takes its name from the town.
A beautiful thin faience with remarkable metallic glazes is made here.
Other branches of industry include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faience at Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch; chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamondcutting and the manufacture of quinine at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along the rivers and canals.
It carries on considerable manufactures of faience, plush, velvet, leather, porcelain and earthenware, and is a chief depot for the papier-mache boxes, mostly snuff-boxes, which are made in great quantities in the neighbourhood.
The later us/zebti-figures, little statuettes of wood, stone or faience, of which several hundreds are often found in a single tomb, are confused survivals of both of the earlier classes of statuettes.
FAIENCE, properly the French term for the porzellana di Faenza, a fine kind of glazed and painted earthenware made at Faenza in Italy, hence a term applied generally to all kinds of pottery other than unglazed pottery or porcelain.
The name of Delft is most intimately associated with the manufacture of the beautiful faience pottery for which it was once famous.
By the close of this period a manufactory of fine faience was attached to the palace of Cnossus.
Here too were found the repositories of an early shrine containing exquisite faience figures and reliefs, including a snake goddess - another aspect of the native divinity - and her votaries.
Plastic objects, carved in stone or ivory, cast or beaten in metals (gold, silver, copper and bronze), or modelled in clay, faience, paste, &c. Very little trace has yet been found of large free sculpture, but many examples exist of sculptors' smaller work.
The manufacture, modelling and painting of faience objects, and the making of inlays in many materials were also familiar to Aegean craftsmen, who show in all their best work a strong sense of natural form and an appreciation of ideal balance and decorative effect, such as are seen in the best products of later Hellenic art.
Industry especially attained a high state of development; rich garments were embroidered, and glass, pastes, faience, &c., were manufactured.
It was at the little village of Seto, some five miles from Nagoya, the chief town of the province of Owari, or BishU, that the celebrated Kato Shirozaemon made the first Japanese faience OwarL worthy to be considered a technical success.
If we except the ware of Satsuma, it may be said that nearly all the fine faience Self Ii of of Japan was manufactured formerly in KiOto.
It was he who gave their first really artistic impulse to the kilns of Awata, Mizoro and Iwakura, whence so many delightful specimens of faience issued almost without interruption until the middle of the 19th century and continue to issue to-day.
Okamuia Yasutaro, commonly called Shozan, produces specimens which only a very acute connoisseur can distinguish from the work of Nomura Ninsei; Tanzan Rokuros half-tint enamels and soft creamy glazes would have stood high in any epoch; Taizan YOhei produces Awata faience not inferior to that of former days; Kagiya SObei worthily supports the reputation of the KinkOzan ware; Kawamoto Eijiro has made to the order of a well-known KiOto firm many specimens now figuring in foreign collections as old masterpieces; and ItO TOzan succeeds in decorating faience with seven colors sons couverte (black, green, blue, russetred, tea-brown, purple and peach), a feat never before accomplished.
Seifu YOhei, however, has the special faculty of manufacturing monochromatic and jewelled porcelain and faience, which differ essentially from the traditional Kioto types, their models being taken directly from China.
Its only notable production of a ceramic character was the work of Miura Kenya (1830-1843), who followed the methods of the celebrated Haritsu (I 6881704) of KiOto in decorating plain or lacquered wood with mosaics of raku faience having colored glazes.
Every year large quantities of porcelain and faience are sent from the provinces to the capital to receive surface decoration, and in wealth of design as well as carefulness of execution the results are praiseworthy.
Faience thus decorated has always been exceptional in Japan.