The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
Est le facies d'eau agitee du Bougainvillia ramosa Van Ben."
The, fferent facies are possibly related to slight differences in a merally uniform habitat: it is unscientific to regard them as se to chance; still, in the majority of cases, the causes of the iferent facies have not been demonstrated.
Has been brought about rather by extermination than specialization, and their distinctive facies by the development and multiplication of the surviving types.
The resemblances consist, in fact, not so much in the existence of one general facies running through the regions, as is the case with the northern flora, but in the presence of peculiar types, such ai those belonging to the families Restiaceae, Proteaceae, Ericaceae Mutisiaceac and Rutaceae.
In the Urals the marine facies is more fully developed and the fauna shows affinities with that of the Productus limestone of the Central Asian mountain belt.
As a rule the general facies as well as dimensions are remarkably uniform throughout a family, so that tropical species -often differ little in appearance from those inhabiting temperate regions.
Upper Silurian, having a strong relation to the Wenlock group of Britain, but with an American facies, and Lower Silurian, with a succession much the same as in British North America, are found on the shores of Smith Sound, and Nathorst has discovered them in King Oscar Fjord, but not as yet so far south as the Danish possessions.
A few Devonian forms have also been recorded from the Parry Archipelago, and Nathorst has shown the existence of Old Red Sandstone facies of Devonian in Traill Island, Geographical Society Island, Ymer Island and Gauss Peninsula.
The facies of the fossils is, according to Mr Etheridge, North American and Canadian, though many of the species are British.
The Carboniferous system in Brazil presents itself under two facies, the one marine and the other terrestrial.
The only Mesozoic system which is represented in Brazil by marine beds is the Cretaceous, and the marine facies, is restricted to the coasts and the basin of the Amazon.
The Senonian consists of a central facies with Micraster peini; a meridional facies with Ostrea; and a northern facies developed round Tunisia with large forms of Inoceramus and echinoids.
As limits; but in none of these schemes has the coast of Antarctica been adequately considered, and they have all been too much influenced by the Mercator map. Each of the three oceans, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific, possesses an Antarctic facies in the southern part and a tropical facies between the tropics, and the Atlantic and Pacific an Arctic facies in their northern parts.
North of the Atlas it belongs to the European type, in the south it contains a fauna of oysters and sea-urchins belonging to the facies " africano-syrian " of Zittel.
It is, in fact, a facies and nothing more.
The Trias has almost disappeared, and what remains is not of the marine type characteristic of the Eastern Alps but belongs rather to the continental facies which occurs in Germany and France.
These geologists appropriated the term " culm " for the whole of this facies in the west of England, and subsequently traced the same type on the European continent, where it is widely developed in the western centre.
(2) Flora and Fauna of the Lagoonal or Continental Facies.- The strata deposited during this period are the earliest in which the remains of plants take a prominent place.
Finally, it is important to remember that the fundamental characteristic of a living organism is its power of response to environment, a response or series of responses being necessary in a continuous environment for the normal facies of the organism to appear, and necessary in a shifting environment if the organism is to change suitably and not to perish.
Two years later Murchison brought out his Siluria, in which he treated the Cambrian system as a mere local facies of the Silurian system, and he included in the latter, under J.
The generic characters are based upon definite modifications of form which affect the entire facies of the animals, while the specific diagnoses depend upon minor characters, such as the number of myotomes or muscle-segments.
The upper divisions consist of bituminous limestones, clay-slates, alum-slate, and contain numerous species of trilobites of the genera Paradoxides, Conocoryphe, Agnostus, Sphaerophthalmus, Peltura, &c. The Ordovician formation occurs in two distinct facies - the one shaley and containing graptolites; the other calcareous, with brachiopods, trilobites, &c. The most constant of the calcareous divisions is the Orthoceras limestone, a red or grey limestone with Megalaspis and Orthoceras.
To return to the northern hemisphere, it is clear that the Wealden flora, as represented by plants recorded from England, France, Belgium, Portugal, Russia, Germany and other European regions, as also from Japan and elsewhere, carries on, with minor differences, the facies of the older Jurassic floras.
Hemisphere facies, in the Zambesi district VII.
Passing over the few known species of plants from the middle Trias (Muschelkalk) to the more abundant and more widely spread Upper Triassic species as recorded from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, North America and elsewhere, we find a vegetation characterized chiefly by an abundance of Ferns and Cycads, exhibiting the same general facies as that of the succeeding Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic floras.
The Jurassic of Andalusia belongs to the Mediterranean facies of the system; the Jurassic of the rest of Spain is more nearly allied to that of northwestern Europe.
The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are ordinary marine sediments, but from the Cenomanian to the Oligocene the deposits are of the peculiar facies known in the Alps and Carpathians as Flysch.
The Lower Carboniferous, which belongs to the " Culm " facies so widely spread in central Europe, occupies a wide area in southern Portugal; but the Upper Carboniferous is very restricted in extent, and occurs in small basins like those of the Central Plateau of France, resting unconformably upon the rocks below.
They form, in fact, a special facies which may frequently be traced laterally into the more normal marine deposit of the same age.