EZEKIEL (spin', " God strengthens " or " God is strong "; Sept.
Ezekiel was married (xxiv.
Feeling of the later time frowned on the custom, and Ezekiel treats it as adultery.'
The relations between the writings of Ezekiel and those of Jeremiah is not clear.
On the other hand the better party among the priests, believing the ritual to be necessary, might undertake to moralize it; of such a movement, begun by Deuteronomy, Ezekiel is the most eminent representative.
The Hebrew text of the book of Ezekiel is not in good condition - it is full of scribal inaccuracies and additions.
The Talmudic tradition (Baba Batlara 14b) that the men of the Great Synagogue " wrote " Ezekiel, may refer to editorial work by later scholars.'
The prediction in question was doubtless added by Ezekiel after the event; the code belongs precisely in his time, and the constitution was natural for a priest; Noah, Daniel and Job are old legendary Hebrew figures; and it is not probable that the prophet's " Paras " is our " Persia."
10, 11, see the English Ezekiel in Haupt's Sacred Books.
Descent into Sheol is intensely tragic. Whether these discourses were all uttered between the investment of Jerusalem and its fall, or were here inserted by Ezekiel or by a scribe, it is not possible to say.
2 The stem of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded to the priesthood, and the extinction of national hopes gives new importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which Ezekiel had prepared the way by his sentence of disfranchisement against the nonZadokite priests.
Increased and her vigilance was relaxed, and might receive from Babylon and other lands both refugees and some account at least of the writings of Ezekiel and the Second Isaiah.
In this he betrays his affinity with Ezekiel, who taught that it is by the possession of the sanctuary that Israel is sanctified (Ezek.
In truth the new movement of religious thought and feeling which started from the fall of the Hebrew state took two distinct lines, of which Ezekiel and the anonymous 3 G.
It was the conception of Ezekiel which permanently influenced the citizens of the new Jerusalem, and took final shape in the institutions of Ezra.
He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).
Early in the next century Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadrezzar, and the prophet Ezekiel was among the exiles with Jehoiachin.
The latter regards Ezekiel as the organizer of the Jewish community and the originator of the sanctity of the Sabbath as a seventh day (Ezek.
We hear the echoes in Jeremiah and Ezekiel and lastly in Haggai in ever feebler tones, and they were destined to reawaken in the Psalter (Pss.
Ezekiel, who borrowed both Jeremiah's language and ideas, expresses the same thought in the well-known words that Yahweh would give the people instead of a heart of stone a heart of flesh (Ezek.
But Ezekiel expressed the strong reaction which had set in against this belief in its older forms. He denies that the individual ever dies for the sins of the father.
In the presence of these awful truths which Ezekiel preached of individual freedom and of impending judgment, the prophet is weighted with a heavy responsibility.
Finally the Deutero-Isaiah conveyed to captive Israel the message of Yahweh's unceasing love and care, and the certainty of their return to Judaea and the restoration of the national prosperity which Ezekiel had already announced in the earlier period of the exile.
- Ezekiel was the successor of Jeremiah and inherited his conceptions.
But Ezekiel was, as Wellhausen well describes him, " a priest in prophet's mantle."
It was the task of Ezekiel to take up once more the broken threads of Israel's religious traditions, and weave them anew into statelier forms of ritual and national polity.
Unlike the old temple and city, the ideal temple of Ezekiel is entirely separate from the city of Jerusalem.
No heathen may tread the outer court.
The second path is that which is traced out by the priest-prophet Ezekiel, and is that of legalism, which was destined to secure a permanent place in the life and literature of the Jewish people.
The development of the priestly code of legislation (Priestercodex) was a gradual process, and probably occupied a considerable part of the 5th century B.C. The Hebrew race now definitely entered upon the new path of organized Jewish legalism which had been originally marked out for it by Ezekiel in the preceding century.
15) some traditions of the wilderness must have represented Israel in a very favourable light; for the " canonical " view, see Ezekiel xvi., xx., xxiii.
The style of Malachi, like his argument, corresponds in its generally prosaic character to that transformation or decay of prophecy which began with Ezekiel; and Ewald rightly called attention to the fact that the conduct of the argument already shows traces of the dialectic manner of the schools.
In Ezekiel the throne of Yahweh is borne up on Cherubim, the noise of whose wings is like thunder.
Was first introduced by Ezekiel, who in particular is the author of the conception that the time of deliverance is to be preceded by a joint attack of all nations on Jerusalem, in which they come to final overthrow (Ezek.
Apocalyptical elements disclose themselves in the prophetical books of Ezekiel, Joel, Zechariah, while in Isaiah xxiv.
The way, however, had in an especial degree been prepared for the apocalyptic type of thought and literature by Ezekiel, for with him the word of God had become identical with a written book (ii.
This is essentially the apocalyptic conception of history, and Ezekiel may be justly represented as in certain essential aspects its founder in Israel.
One such unfulfilled prophecy Ezekiel takes up and reinterprets in such a way as to show that its fulfilment is still to come.
But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic, which in due course passed over into Christian.
14-26 ?) Ezekiel ii.
All are probably pseudepigraphic except the passages from Ezekiel and Joel.
Kings, at all events, undertook priestly duties, and not until after the fall of Jerusalem does the history allow that usurpation of monarchical rights upon which the prophet Ezekiel encroaches.