THE Eyepiece Or Ocular The eyepiece is considerably simpler in its construction than the objective.
The eyepiece ab consists of two plano-convex lenses a, b, of nearly the same focal length, and with the two convex sides facing each other.
This is known as Ramsden's eyepiece, having been made originally by him.
The eyepiece slides into the tube cd, which screws into the brass ring ef, through two openings in which the oblong frame, containing the micrometer slides, passes.
S is the head of the micrometer screw proper, s that of the screw moving the slide to which the so-called " fixed web " is attached, s' that of a screw which moves the eyepiece E.
5) the eyepiece can be made to follow the star for a considerable distance along a position-web parallel to the screw, the bisection of the web by a star moving by the diurnal motion at right angles to the micrometer screw can only be followed for a limited distance, viz.
8), s that of the screw which moves the eyepiece slide.
One drawback to this form of instrument is that the two webs cannot be viewed simultaneously, and therefore the observer must rely on the steadiness of rate of the clockwork and uniformity in the conditions of refraction whilst the eye is moved from one eyepiece to the other.
Eyepiece sliding in a tube B, as (fig.
253) on a like subject, proceed to describe a most ingenious form of " Ghost Micrometer," in which the image of a fine line or lines ruled in (or rather cut through) a silver film deposited on glass is formed at the common focus of an object-glass and eyepiece of a telescope.
It should be mentioned that an essential feature of the travelling wire micrometer is that the eyepiece as well as the wire shall be moved by the micrometer-screw.
The scales of the images formed in the focus of the eyepiece common to both microscopes shall be identical.
If the stellar spectrograph is viewed in the focus of 0 2 and the converging rays are reflected by the prism P2 to P4, no image would be seen in the eyepiece, for the rays would pass out directly through the parallel glass plate which is formed by the cementing together of the prisms P 3 and P 4.
Then the lines of the stellar spectrogram would be seen in focus of the eyepiece and the image of the solar spectrograph would be obliterated.
The effect of turning the pinion V is, of course, to displace the focus both of the solar and stellar spectrographs in the field of the eyepiece, but this d .a displacement is easily restored by From Zeitschr.
In polarized light they show a weak grey colour with a black cross, the arms of which are parallel to the cobwebs in the eyepiece of the microscope and remain stationary when the section is rotated.
He therefore selected for any particular measurement such a Rochon prism as when fixed between the eye and the eyepiece (i.e.
Instead of a mirror, the objective of a microscope is attached to one prong of the first fork and the eyepiece of the microscope is fixed behind the fork.
One prong of the fork carries a microscope objective, wart of a vibration microscope, of which the eyepiece is fixed at the back of the clock and the Lissajous figure FIG.
They determined to reinvestigate the motion of y Draconis; the telescope, constructed by George Graham (1675-1751), a celebrated instrument-maker, was affixed to a vertical chimneystack, in such manner as to permit a small oscillation of the eyepiece, the amount of which, i.e.
At the same time, on land, the new necessities imposed on field artillery by the growing use of covered positions led to the development of scissors-telescopes (see Rangefinders) and panorama-telescopic sights (see Sights), in which the optical system was arranged with the tube of the telescope vertical and the object-glass and eyepiece systems at right angles to the axis of the tube.
Immediately above this plane surface and almost touching it is a system of wires which enables angular distances from the centre of the field to be read at the eyepiece below.
By moving the lens G up and down the image can be formed in the correct position for the eyepiece at all extensions of the mast.
(Low power from 3 to 8; medium from 5 to 14; high from 7 to 21.) Each eyepiece is provided with a dummy eyepiece which comes opposite to the eye which is not observing and permits of it being kept open.
The top is closed by a pressure-tight window, inside of which is a prism which reflects the light rays vertically down the tube to a prism at the bottom end, where they are reflected in a horizontal direction and focussed in an eyepiece attached to the bottom of the tube.
In its simplest form it consists of a direct-vision spectroscope, having an adjustable slit (called "camera slit"), instead of an eyepiece, in the focal plane of the observing telescope.
A cross-hair, in the focal plane of an eyepiece, is then moved horizontally until it coincides with the line in question.
The eyepiece is removed and the photographic plate (k) placed in position.
Huygens contrived some ingenious arrangements for directing such telescopes towards any object visible in the heavens - the focal adjustment and centring of the eyepiece being preserved by a braced rod connecting the objectglass and eye-piece.
In the Ramsden eyepiece (see Microscope) the focal lengths of the two piano-convex lenses are equal, and their convexities are turned towards one another.
Through the eyepiece of the bent 1 telescope E' another hour circle attached to the lower end of the polar axis can be seen; thus an assistant is able to direct the telescope by a handle at H to any desired hour angle.
Light from an extended source passes after polarization through two convex systems of lenses, between which the crystalline plate is placed, and is then received in an eyepiece furnished with an analyser.
It is on this latter plane that the eyepiece must be focussed, and here the measuring web must be placed.
Of polarimeters for the study of rotary polarization there are three principal forms. In Wild's polaristrobometer, light from a soda flame, rendered parallel by a lens, is polarized by a Nicol's prism, and after traversing the space into which the active substance is to be inserted, falls on a Savart's plate placed in front of an astronomical telescope of low power, that contains in its eyepiece a Nicol's prism, which with the plate forms a Savart's analyser.
In order to correct this, the light after analysation is passed through another plate of quartz and then the sensitive tint may be more or less restored by cutting off some colour, the same for the whole field, by a Nicol's prism placed in the eyepiece of the telescope.
The compound microscope generally consists of two positive lens systems, so arranged that the system nearer the object (termed the objective) projects a real enlarged image, which occupies the same place relatively to the second system (the eyepiece or ocular) as does the real object in the simple microscope.
The convenient and rapid change in the magnification obtained by changing the eyepiece or the objective is also a special advantage of the compound form.
For the eyepiece the other rule holds; the object is represented by narrow pencils, and it is hence possible to subject the relatively great object, viz.
This change is usually effected by mounting the objective and eyepiece on two telescoping tubes, so that by drawing apart or pushing in the tube length is increased or diminished at will.
If we assume that a normal eye observes the image through the eyepiece, the eyepiece must project a distant image from the real image produced by the objective.
In this case the optical tube length equals the distance of the adjacent focal planes of the two systems, which equals the distance of the image-side focus of the objective F 1 ' from the object-side focus of the eyepiece F2.
The image viewed through the eyepiece appears then to the observer under the angle w", and as with the single microscope tan w" = I /f 2 ' (4) where f' 2 is the image-side focal length of the eyepiece.
L i =objective, L2 L3 = eyepiece of the Ramsden type.
13) is inverted, the objective L 1 tracing from the object 00 1 a real inverted image O'0' 1, and the eyepiece L 2 L 3 maintaining this arrangement.
But as the object-side focus F2 lies behind the eyepiece, the real image is not produced, but the converging pencils from the objective are changed by the eyepiece into parallels; and the point 0 1 in the top of the object y appears at the top to the eye, i.e.
In all microscopes the rays are limited, not in the eyepiece, but in the objective, or before the objective when using a condenser.
13 that the objective's exit pupil P'P1' is portrayed by the positive eyepiece, the image P"P i " limits the pencils P ', double microscope; these inverting prisms permit a convenient adaptation of the instrument to the interpupillary distance of the observer.
The terrestrial eyepiece (see Telescope), which likewise ensures an upright image, but which involves an inconvenient lengthening, has also been employed in the binocular microscope.
`' must lie in the front focal plane of the eyepiece if we retain the supposition IT/ that it is to be viewed by a normal 0, p F, eye with passive accommodation.
As the pencils used in the representations are of wide aperture on the object-side, only such points as are proportionately very near the focal plane can produce such small dispersion circles on the plane focused for, that they, so far as the objectiveand eyepiece-magnification permit, appear as points to the eye.
As the exit pupil ['P i ' for the objective lies before the front focus of the eyepiece, generally at some distance and near the objective, the eyepiece projects a real image from it behind its image-side focus, so that if this point is accessible it is the exit pupil P"P i ".
The eyepiece, which by means of narrow pencils represents the relatively large real image at infinity, transmits from all points of this real image parallel pencils, whereby the inclination of the principal rays becomes further increased.
In the case of the negative eyepiece, on the other hand, the divergence of the principal rays through the eyepiece is also further augmented, but their point of intersection is not accessible to the eye.
This property shows the superiority of the collective eyepiece over the dispersive.
While the limiting of the pencil is almost always effected by the objective, the limiting of the field of view is effected by the eyepiece, and indeed it is carried out by a real diaphragm DD arranged in the plane of the real image O'O 1 (fig.
The entrance window is then the real image of this diaphragm projected by the objective in the surface conjugate to the plane focused for, and the exit window is the image projected by the eyepiece; this happens with the image of the object lying at infinity.
In the case of the dispersive eyepiece, on the contrary, no sharply limited field can arise, but vignetting must occur.
Back focal plane of the objective, can be conveniently seen with the naked eye by removing the eyepiece and looking into the tube, or better by focusing a weak auxiliary microscope on the back focal plane of the objective.
The objective and eyepiece have.
The demands made upon the eyepiece, which has to represent a relatively large field by narrow cones of rays, are not very considerable.
This aberration can, however, be successfully controlled by a suitable eyepiece (see below).
One of these is the Ramsden eyepiece (fig.
In the other type, the Huygenian eyepiece (fig.