At the close of 1908 the state receipts for the year amounted to $1,004,041, and expenditures to $875,941.
In many cases, as at Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Manaos, the cost and maintenance of the new port-works are met by an additional tax on merchandise, though the immediate expenditures are met by advances from the national treasury, and at Rio de Janeiro by a foreign loan.
In each county a convention, composed of representatives from the towns, meets every two years to levy taxes and to authorize expenditures for grounds and buildings whenever more than one thousand dollars are required.
The two main functions of the treasury department are the administration of the government revenues and expenditures, and of the banking and currency laws.
The public debt, which began to accumulate in 1825, was increased by the canal expenditures to $16,880,000 in 1843.
About a third of its revenue goes for such uses or for Suffolk county expenditures over which it has but limited control.
The department of industry, communications and public works takes the next highest proportion, but about half its expenditures are met by special taxes, as in the case of port works and railway inspection, and by the revenues of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office.
The gold and currency receipts and expenditures for the six years 1900 to 1905, inclusive, according to official returns, were as follows: - Reducing gold to a currency basis at 15d.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
The official budget returns for 1904-6 show the revenues and expenditures to have been 1904.
From 1860 to 1870 the population increased 22.6%, and the net ordinary expenditures of government, not including payments on the national debt, rose 173%; from 1870 to 1900 the corresponding figures (using the official estimated population) were 129% and 408%.
The expenditures of the government increased steadily per capita up to the opening of the Civil War.
A phenomenal growth of both customs and excise revenue has made such expenditures easy.
From 1791 to 1886 the aggregate net ordinary expenditures of the governmentthese expenditures being exclusive of payments on account of principal and interest of the public debtwere as follows, in millions of dollars: for the army, 4563; navy, 1106; military pensions, ~oo; miscellaneous, 2168; total 8737.
In the state of Massachusetts, for instance, an act passed in 1892, and subsequently amended, provides that political committees shall file a full statement, duly sworn to, of all campaign expenditures made by them.
The reform sought by the law is thorough publicity, and not only are details of receipts and expenditures to be published, but the names of contributors and the amount of their contributions.
Taxes on real estate have been abolished and those on personal property are being reduced, although the heavy expenditures on the new capitol at Harrisburg checked the movement temporarily.
In each school division, of which there were 35 in 1908, the division superintendent appoints the native teachers, prepares for the municipal councils estimates of school expenses, and approves all expenditures from municipal school funds.
General average arises when sacrifices have been made, or expenditures incurred, for the preservation of the ship, cargo and freight, from some peril of the sea or from its effects.
Sacrifices, as distinguished from expenditures, the York-Antwerp Rules do not much alter English common law.
In 1824 the Real del Monte mines were sold to an English company and became the centre of a remarkable mining speculation - the company ruining itself with lavish expenditures and discontinuing work in 1848.
The custom of dividing receipts and expenditures into ordinary and extraordinary, of treating the receipts from loans as revenue, of adding six months to the fiscal year for closing up accounts, and of dividing receipts and expenditures into separate gold and currency accounts, leads to much confusion and complication in the returns, and is the cause of unavoidable discrepancies and contradictions.
In order to minimize expenditures, Dean planned to skip the motel bit and camp out on the tour.
The parks are a fine feature of the city; by its charter a fixed percentage of all expenditures for public improvements must be used to purchase park land.
Since 1891 the national budgets have been calculated in both gold and currency, and both receipts and expenditures have been carried out in this dual system.
The collection of a part of the import duties in gold has served to give the government the gold it requires for certain expenditures, but it has complicated returns and accounts and increased the burden of taxation.
In Argentina these burdens bear heavily upon the labouring classes, and in years of depression they send away by thousands immigrants unable to meet the high costs of living, For the year 1900 the total expenditures of the national government, 14 provincial governments, and 16 principal cities, were estimated to have been $208,811,925 paper, which is equivalent to $91,877,247 gold, or (at $5.04 per pound stg.) to £18,229,612, ios.
For each man, woman, and child in the republic. About 71% of this charge was on account of national expenditures, and 29% provincial and municipal expenditures.
In 1889 the public debt of the republic amounted to about £24,000,000, but the financial difficulties which immediately followed that year, and the continuance of excessive expenditures, forced the debt up to approximately £128,000,000 during the next ten years.
For the year ending on the 30th of June 1908 the total receipts were $1,822,390, the expenditures were $1,871,166.
A somewhat better theory of rate regulation was then framed, which divided railway expenditures into movement expense, connected with the line in general, and terminal expense, which connected itself with the stations and station service.
Of this character are the expenditures necessary for maintenance of way, for general administration and for interest on capital borrowed, which are almost independent of the total amount of business done, and quite independent of any individual piece of business.
Such bodies, established to appraise land for railway purposes, to apportion receipts and expenditures of interstate traffic, and in a general way to supervise railway transportation, had been in existence in New England before 1860, one of the earliest being that of Rhode Island in 1839.
The more important expenditures are for public schools, state departments, educational and charitable institutions and pensions for Confederate veterans.
Mississippi suffered less than most of the other Southern states during the Reconstruction period; but expenditures rose from $463,219.71 in 1869 to $1,729,046.34 in 1871.
The total receipts from all sources in 1908 amounted to $25,987,021; the balance from the preceding year was $11,714,135, and the total expenditures were $24,695,157.
The metropolitan water board - of whose expenditures Boston bears only a share - expended from 1895 to 1900 $20,693,870; and the system was planned to consume finally probably 40 millions at least.
His carelessness in keeping account of his receipts and expenditures, and the differences between himself and Arthur Lee regarding the contracts with Beaumarchais, eventually led, in November 1777, to his recall to face charges, of which Lee's complaints formed the basis.
Expenditures from the fund known as " The Internal Improvement Land Fund," derived from the sale of state lands, can be made only after the enactment for that purpose has been approved by the voters of the state; in 1881 the legislature, and in 1884 the popular vote, pledged the proceeds of this fund to the payment of Minnesota state railway adjustment bonds.
The depreciation and unstable character of the paper currency render it difficult to give a clear statement of receipts and expenditures for a term of years, the sterling equivalents often showing a decrease, through a fall in the value of the milreis, where there has been an actual increase in currency returns.
The government then had to readjust expenditures to largely diminished resources; but the obligation has been met intelligently and courageously, and since 1895 there has been an improvement in the financial state of the country.
The growth of receipts and expenditures is shown in the following table: - The revenues of 1896 were only £1,128,714.
From 1773 to 1775 he represented the town of Windsor in the general assembly of Connecticut, and in the latter year became a member of the important commission known as the "Pay Table," which supervised the colony's expenditures for military purposes during the War of Independence.
The total receipts from all sources for the year 1909 were $2,317,512, the expenditures $2,345,359.
The natural objection of the colonies, as voiced, for example, by the assembly of Pennsylvania, was that it was a cruel thing to tax colonies already taxed beyond their strength, and surrounded by enemies and exposed to constant expenditures for defence, and that it was an indignity that they should be taxed by a parliament in which they were not represented; at the same time the Pennsylvania assembly recognized it as " their duty to grant aid to the crown, according to their abilities, whenever required of them in the usual manner."
At the same time expenditures were largely increased by liberal pension legislation, and the government's purchase of silver bullion almost doubled by the provisions of the new Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890.
A statement of receipts and expenditures of an election campaign, showing the amount received from each contributor and the name of t every person or committee to whom more than $5 was paid, must be filed by the treasurer of every political committee within twenty days after the election; each candidate also must file a statement of his contributions.
But it was left alone to protect its own frontier against the French, and while the assembly was wrangling with Governor Clinton for the control of expenditures the French and their Indians were burning farm houses, attacking Saratoga (November r6, 1745), and greatly endangering the English-Iroquois alliance.
In 1908 the total expenditures for public schools were $3,152,006 ($1,633,594 being for teachers' salaries) and the total receipts were $3,853,695, of which $2,283,038 was from district taxes.
The current revenues of the state for the year ending on the 1st of July 1909, including cash on hand at the beginning of the year, were $4, 1 4 8, 734; for the same year the expenditures were $3,358,847.
At the close of the fiscal year ending on the 31st of October 1908, the receipts for the year amounted to $3,259,668, the expenditures to $3,47 6, 0 73 and the balance in the treasury to $582,905.
The committee's decision was that the Board of Grounds and Buildings was not authorized to let the decorating and furnishing of the state house; that it had illegally authorized certain expenditures; and that architect and contractors had made fraudulent invoices and certificates.
The expenditures are chiefly for the services of the public debt, military expenses, public works and internal affairs (Department of the Interior).
The national expenditures are chiefly for the interest and amortization charges on the public debt, official salaries, military expenses in connexion with the army and navy, public works (including railway construction, port improvements, water and sewage works), the administration of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office, church subsidies, public instruction and foreign representation.
The ordinary and extraordinary receipts and expenditures for the five years 1899-1903, in gold and currency, in pesos of 18d., were as follows: - For 1906 the expenditures were fixed at 149,000,000 pesos, and the revenues were estimated to produce 149,100,000 pesos, which included 62,200,000 pesos gold from nitrate taxes, 39,800,000 pesos gold and 200,000 pesos paper from import duties, 23,500,000 pesos paper from the state railways, 2,500,000 pesos paper from postal and telegraph receipts, and 15,000,000 pesos gold from loans.
How the revenues are expended is shown in the estimates for 1907, in which the total expenditures were estimated at 134,830,532 pesos paper and 58,796,780 pesos gold, the principal appropriations being 16,192,780 pesos paper and 99,733 gold for the war department, 10,460,781 paper and 6,315,731 gold for the marine department, 4 0, 934, 2 73 paper and 16,984,671 gold for railways, and 6,324,817 paper for public works.
In addition to these the budget of 1906 provided for gold expenditures in 1907 of 7,000,000 pesos on sanitary works and 8,000,000 pesos on the Arica-La Paz railway.
The revenues and expenditures of the states and municipalities in 1904, the latest date available, aggregated as follows: Revenue.
At the close of the fiscal year ending on the 31st of May 1908, New Mexico showed expenditures of $721,272.81, receipts of 8754,080.94 and a balance in the treasury of $378,653.63.
The postal revenues for 1904 amounted to 2,775,730 pesos and the expenditures to 2,407,753 pesos.
As a considerable part of the expenditures were in gold, the practice was adopted of keeping the gold and currency accounts separate.