The chief item of expenditure (which totalled 148 million pounds in 1905) is the service of the public debt, which in 1905 cost 483/4 million pounds sterling.
In his dealings with money, he was characterized rather by liberality of expenditure than by carefulness of acquisition.
In 1908 the ordinary and extraordinary expenditure was 1/210,000,000.
Additional stamp duties and taxes were imposed in 1909 to meet the expenditure necessitated by the disastrous earthquake at the end of 1908.
According to the census returns of 1895, the total mileage was 496 m., representing a capital expenditure of $84,044,581 paper.
The revenue of the republic is derived mainly from customs and excise, and the largest item of expenditure is the service of the public debt.
The state further guaranteed a minimum rate of interest on the capital invest~1, and this guarantee, which by the convention of 1859 had applied to new lines only, was now extended to cover both old and new lines, the receipts and expenditure from both kinds being lumped together.
Since 1875 the expenditure of the state has passed through considerable fluctuations- It reached its maximum in 1883, descended E dl- in 1888 and 1889, and since then has continuously inxpeft creased.
The ordinary budget of expenditure was that met entirely by the produce of the taxes, while the extraordinary budget of expenditure was that which had to be incurred either in the way of an immediate loan or in aid of the funds of the floating debt.
The other ministries with the largest outgoings were the ministry of war (the expenditure of which rose from 254 millions in 1895 to over 30 millions in 1995), the ministry of marine (103/4 millions in 1895, over 123/4 millionsin 1905), the ministry of public works (with an expenditure in 1905 of over 20 millions, 10 millions of which was assigned to posts, telegraphs and telephones) and the ministry of public instruction, fine arts and public worship, the expenditure on education having risen from 73/4 millions in 1895 to 93/4 millions in 1905.
This large increase is to be accounted for by the fact that during the Napoleonic rgime the government steadily refused to issue inconvertible paper currency or to meet war expenditure by borrowing.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
Save for the small item of military expenditure Tunisia is no charge to the French exchequer.
In1907-1908revenue and expenditure balanced at £103,000.
Scudamore, second secretary to the Post Office, to inquire and report whether the electric telegraph service could be beneficially worked by the Post Office, and whether it would entail any very large expenditure on the.
On the total expenditure of £7,252,000 was £432,726.
At the end of the contract the landlord either cultivates his land himself or leases it, repaying to the improver part of the expenditure incurred by him.
A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.
In that year their income, including revenue from capital, was 416,385, and their expenditure 300,232.
The chief items of annual expenditure drawn from the fund are the supplementary stipends to priests and the pensions to members of suppressed religious houses.
Ordinary and extraordinary military expenditure for the financial year 1898-1899 amounted to nearly 1/210,000,000, an increase of 1/24,000,000 as compared with 1871.
The Italian Chamber decided that from the 1st of July 1901 until the 30th of June 1907 Italian military expenditure proper should not exceed the maximum of 1/29,560,000 per annum fixed by the Army Bill of May 1897, and that, military pensions should not exceed 1/21,440,000.
Italian military expenditure was thus until f907 1/2ff,000,000 per annum.
Naval expenditure has enormously increased since 1871, the total for 1871 having been about 900,000, and the total for 1905-1906 over 5~ 100,000.
This sum consists of 4,240,000 of naval expenditure proper, 220,000 for naval pensions and 380,000 for premiums upon mercantile shipbuilding.
The income of 60,741,418 in 1881 rose in 1899-1900 to 69,917,126; while the expenditure increased from 58,705,929 in 1881 to 69,708,706 in 1899-1900, an increase of 9,175,708 in income and 11,002,777 in expenditure, while there has been a still further increase since, the figures for 1905-1906 showing (excluding items which figure on both sides of the account) an increase of 8,766,995 in income and 5,434,560 in expenditure over 1899-1900.
These figures include not only the categories of income and expenditure proper, but also those known as movement of capital, railway constructions and part ite di giro, which do not constitute real income and expenditure.i Considering only income and expenditure proper, the approximate totals are:
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
The revenue in the Italian financial year 1905-1906 (July I, 1905 to June 30, 1906) was 102,486,108, and the expenditure 99,945,253, or, subtracting the partite di giro, 99,684,121 and 97,143,266, leaving a surplus of 2,54o,855.f The surplus was made up by contributions from every branch of the effective revenue, except the contributions and repayments from local authorities.
The so-called guardie di pubblica sicurezza, the carabinieri being really a military force; only the largest towns maintain a municipal police force), charities, education, &c., in case such expenditure is neglected by the communal authorities.
The main heads of expenditure, of which the total was £467,328, were as follows: - History.