She endeavoured unsuccessfully to eke out her irregularly paid allowance by those expedients to which reduced gentlewomen are driven - fancywork and painting fans and snuff-boxes; she lived in a garret and was often unable to allow herself the luxury of a fire.
Positive law, at least in progressive societies, is constantly tending to fall behind public opinion, and the expedients adopted for bringing it into harmony therewith are three, viz, legal fictions, equity and statutory legislation.
By dint of expedients he gradually overcame the chronic deficit, and, owing to the normal increase of revenue, ended his term of office with the announcement of a surplus of some 720,000.
His character was hardening, and he deliberately adopted the most barbarous expedients for converting the Augustan Poles to his views.
The government yielded to the outcry that arose; but the expedients by which it sought to mitigate the evil, notably the division of those entitled to relief into classes, only increased the alarm and the discontent.
So long as the reserve was available it was drawn upon to supply the void; but when that also was exhausted recourse was had to expedients, such as the borrowing, or rather seizure, of the vakuf revenues (1622) and the sale of crown properties; then ensued a period of barefaced confiscation, until, to restore public confidence in some measure, state budgets were published at intervals, viz.
By financial expedients of this kind payments were effected by the treasury ill fifteen years (1881-1896) amounting to £T11,666,000 or at the rate of nearly £T800,000 per annum.
Meanwhile the mathematical mind, with its craving for accurate data on which to found its plans (the most difficult of all to obtain under the conditions of warfare), had been searching for expedients which might serve him to better purpose, and in 1805 he had recourse to the cavalry screen in the hope of such results.
It is thus necessary to distinguish, in the work of the Convention, the temporary expedients from measures intended to be permanent.
The efforts of the kings to minimize this evil, and of the old jurisprudence to deal with the matter, resulted in two expedients: (1) the reversion of the appanage to the crown was secured as far as possible, being declared inalienable and transmissible only to male descendants in the male line of the person appanaged; (2) originally the person appanaged had possessed all the rights of a duke or count - that is to say, in the middle ages nearly all the attributes of sovereignty; the more important of these attributes were now gradually reserved to the monarch, including public authority over the inhabitants of the appanage in all essential matters.
A friend of compromise, like most of the men of his cloth, Wallqvist dissuaded all revolutionary expedients at the outset, though when the king proved immovable the bishop materially smoothed the way before him.
The finances were speedily put on an excellent footing, means were provided for carrying on the war to a successful issue (one of the chief expedients being the raising of the Sound tolls) and on the conclusion of peace Oxe, as lord treasurer, not only reduced the national debt considerably, but redeemed a large portion of the alienated crown-lands.
The fifth, and last period - which, after all other expedients had failed, finally brought the residue of uncaptured and unsurrendered burghers to submission - was the final development of the blockhouse system, wedded to the institution of systematic. " driving " of given areas, which operations were in force until the 31st of May 1902, when peace was ratified at Pretoria.
Various expedients were adopted, as, e.g., the use of incense just before the beginning of service, by which it was sought to retain incense without infringing the law as laid down by the archbishops.
He took an active share in the various expedients of the government for stopping the depreciation of the assignats.
By such expedients he raised and equipped a force which may be estimated at 4000 men-at-arms and as many foot-soldiers, with a fleet of loo transports (1,91).
Hence we find various expedients adopted in the Targums for avoiding any reference to the Deity, which might be misunderstood by the people, or which involved apparent irreverence.
The number of questions which Calvin failed to ask or eluded by absolutely irrational expedients frees him from any taint of modern rationalism.
He used all sorts of expedients, sometimes dishonest, to replenish the treasury, and was even accused of having himself profited from the commerce in wheat.
Louis, always inexhaustible in expedients, determined to indemnify himself in the north for his disappointments in the south.
Marius, however, unlike Caesar, did not attempt to overturn the oligarchy by means of the army; he used rather such expedients as the constitution seemed to allow, though they had to be backed up by riot and violence.
Strauss: in his Leben Jesu (1833) he abandons the shifts and expedients by which the rationalists eliminated the miraculous from the Gospel stories, but he abandons also their historical character.
It changed thought into an emotional dream; it plunged into the ocean of sentiment; it treated the old world of fable as the reflection of a higher reality, and transformed reality into poetry; and after all these expedients, to borrow a phrase of Augustine's, it only saw afar off the land of its desire.
It was, besides, singularly interesting from the expedients to which the Hindu architect was forced to resort to imitate the vaults of the Moslems. Of the buildings, however, which so excited the admiration of the emperor Baber, probably little now remains.
One of the expedients for inducing a state of fruitfulness in trees is the ringing of the branches or stem, that is, removing a narrow annular portion of the bark, by which means, it is said, the trees are not only rendered productive, but the quality of the fruit is at the same time improved.
By the exercise of the most rigid economy in all branches this end was attained, though budgetary equilibrium was only secured by a variety of financial expedients, justified by the vital importance of saving Egypt from further international interference.
The treasury could not afford to lose the land-tax, which it would naturally forfeit by the first two of the above occurrences, and we read of various expedients being tried to prevent this loss.
The royal supremacy over the church and the means by which it was enforced were harsh and violent expedients; but it was of the highest importance that England should be saved from religious civil war, and it could only be saved by a despotic government.
Similar expedients to assist the memory in repetitions of prayers occur among Buddhists and Mahommedans: in the former case the prayers are said on a string of some hundred beads, called the tibet-pren-ba or the ten-wa; in the latter case, the so-called tasbih has 33, 66 or 99 beads, and is used for the repetition of the 99 names which express the attributes of God.
The inherent viciousness of these expedients had, however, not as yet been revealed by their inevitable results, and Mehemet Ali in the eyes of the world was at once the most enlightened and the most powerful of the sultan's valis.
Stern and ambitious he certainly was, but his aims can scarcely be said to have exceeded his prerogatives as emperor; and though he had sometimes recourse when in straits to expedients almost diabolically ingenious in their cruelty, yet his general conduct was marked by a clemency which in that age was exceptional.
In nearly every country the rate of these births has of late years shown a marked fall, which is by some ascribed to the adoption of the same expedients in illicit intercourse as are becoming conventional amongst the married.
Instead of the comparatively simple expedients of the barbarian monarchies, as indicated above, the Athenian city state by degrees developed a rather complex revenue system.
Neither as financial nor as protective expedients were the custom duties of classical societies of much importance.
By means of the grist tax (which he had proposed in 1865, but which the Menabrea cabinet had passed in 1868), and by other fiscal expedients necessitated by the almost desperate condition of the national exchequer, he succeeded, before his fall from power in 1873, in placing Italian finance upon a sound footing, in spite of fierce attacks and persistent misrepresentation.
The nation was divided into small mutually hostile parties; there were ecclesiastical troubles owing to the hostility of the Church to the new republic; there were Indian risings in the south and royalist revolts in the island of Chiloe; the expenditure exceeded the revenue, and the employment of the old Spanish financial expedients naturally increased the general discontent.
Contributions towards setting the poor to work, erecting the Royal Exchange, cleansing the city ditch, discovering new countries, furnishing military and naval armaments, for men, arms and ammunition for the defence of the city, are among what Herbert calls the sponging expedients of the government.
These expedients have since been carried much farther.
Thick of a monolithic dam, subject to the pressure of water against its vertical side to the full depth ab= d in feet, the horizontal _ eL 2 pressure of water against the section of the dam, inI creasing uniformly with the depth, is properly represented by the isosceles right-angled triangle abe, in which be is the maximum water-pressure due to the Cent full depth d, while the area 2 abe = d is t h e total hor12 d3 6 If x be the width of the base, and p the density of the masonry, the weight of the masonry in terms of a cubic foot of water will be acting at its centre of gravity g, situated at 3x from the outer toe, and the moment of resistance to overturning on the outer toe, p x 2 d (2) In countries where good clay or retentive earth cannot be obtained, numerous alternative expedients have been adopted with more or less success.
He obtained enorn~ous sums, by the most unwise and iniquitous expedients, mainly by selling to any buyer that he could find valuable pieces of crown property, high offices and dangerous rights and privileges.
But all expedients are worth trying in the hour of ruin, and seeing that Joan was disinterested and sincere, and that her preaching exercised a marked influence over the people and the soldiery, Charles allowed her to march with the last levies that he put into the field for the relief of Orleans.
Not the least fertile of his expedients was that regular exploitation of the law as a source of revenue, which had already been seen in the time of his father-in-law.
He could not have become suddenly blind to the fallacy of the expectations derived from such a course; and all his life it had been his distinction to look above the transient and trafficking expedients of the professional politician.
But although she resorted to all sorts of expedients, even to that of trying to pass off a changeling as the grand duke's child, she was not successful.
To carry out his conviction, he had still only a timid will, working through petty expedients; but here again his confidence in the future made him bold.
A storm burst forth in the parlement against Mazarin as the patron of these expedients, the occasion for this being the edict of redemption by which the government renewed for Reb~iiioa nine years the Paulette which had now expired, parlement.
But these were only provisionary and desperate expedients, superposed upon the old routine, a further charge in addition to those already existing; and this entirely mechanical system, destructive of private initiative and the very sources of public life, worked with difficulty even in time of peace.
But credit cannot be commanded either by violence or by expedients; between July and September 1720 came the suspension of payments, the flight of Law, and the disastrous liquidation which proved once again that respect for the states obligations had not yet entered into the law of public finance.
Whilst the bureaucracy of the ancie-n rgime sought for desperate expedients to prolong its domination, the whole social Th body gave signs of a yet distant but ever nearing discun~ integration.
The worst expedients dictated by the suspicious temper of the French convention of 1790 were adopted.
The ill-will between the king and the chancellor reached an acute stage when Sigismund appointed an opponent of Zamoyski vice-chancellor, and made other ministerial changes which limited his authority; though ultimately, with the aid of his partisans and the adoption of such desperate expedients as the summoning of a confederation to annul the royal decrees in 1592, Zamoyski recovered his full authority.
It was, however, soon made clear that the king and pope were in alliance to crush the independence of the English clergy; and from 1250 onwards Grosseteste openly criticized the new financial expedients to which Innocent IV.