They are the following: - (i) Use of fonts; (2) Status of baptizer; (3) Immersion, submersion or aspersion; (4) Exorcism; (5) Baptismal formula and trine immersion; (6) The age of baptism; (7) Confirmation; (8) Disciplina arcani; (9) Regeneration; (10) Relation to repentance; (11) Baptism for the dead; (12) Use of the name; (13) Origin of the institution; (14) Analogous rites in other religions.
He was against the Leipzig Interim (1548) with its compromise on some Catholic usages, and was involved in controversies and quarrels; with Georgius Merula, against whom he maintained the need of exorcism in baptism; with Osiander's adherents in the matter of justification; with his colleague, Nicholas von Amsdorf, to whom he had resigned the Eisenach superintendency; with Flacius Illyricus, and others.
It thus stands in the closest relation to the rite of exorcism, of which it is the complement.
In general it may be said, then, that whereas exorcism is practised in order to cast out devils already in possession, benediction is the formula by which they are prevented from entering in.
Augustine speaks of the salt administered to catechumens before baptism and of their exorcism as sacraments; and as late as 1129 Godefrid so calls the salt and water, oil and chrism, the ring and pastoral staff used in ordinations.
Here not one exorcism occurs; in the Synoptists the exorcisms are as prominent as the cures and the preaching.
The prevailing element in the incantations consists in the exorcism of devils.
There still subsists a belief in innumerable evil spirits, which manifest themselves in the phenomena of possession, lycanthropy, and disease. The fear of evil spirits has given rise to ceremonies of expulsion of evils, designed to banish them from the community.
Reservation for the sick and unction of the sick were retained; and exorcism, unction, trine immersion and the chrisom were included in the baptismal service.
(b) The ceremony of exorcism was often performed in order to free the catechumen from evil spirits.
Such ritual use of oil as a o payls or seal may have been suggested in old religions by the practice of keeping wine fresh in jars and amphorae by pouring on a top layer of oil; for the spoiling of wine was attributed to the action of demons of corruption, against whom many ancient formulae of aversion or exorcism still exist.