In early pre-exilian days, with the full moon.
While admitting that a special significance may have been attached in pre-exilian times to the full-moon Sabbath, and that the latter may have been specially intended in the combination " new moon and Sabbath " in the 8th-century prophets (Hos.
13), we are not prepared to deny that the institution of a seventh-day Sabbath was an ancient pre-exilian tradition.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
Of this we have recurring examples in pre-exilian Hebrew history.
In ordinary pre-exilian high places the custom described in the primitive compend of laws (Ex.
His descent, however, from Eleazar, the elder brother of Aaron, can only be regarded as the later artificial construction of the post-exilian chronicler (1 Chron.
In the historical evolution of Hebrew sacrifice it is remarkable how long this non-ethical and primitive survival of old custom still survived, even far into post-exilian times.
In the Trito-Isaiah during the post-exilian period, and in such psalm literature as Pss.
Post-exilian Law - The Priestercodex.
This supreme official, who was destined ultimately to take the place of the king in the church-nation of post-exilian Judaism, is mentioned for the first time in Zech.
In the Priestercodex he stands at the head of the priests, who are, in the post-exilian system, the sons of Aaron and possessed the sole right to offer the temple sacrifices.
The later Post-exilian Developments Jewish Religion.
The pre-exilian prophets (especially Isaiah) spoke of the forthcoming crisis in the world's history as a " day of the Lord."
The most vivid portraiture of Sheol is to be found in the exilian passage Isa.
In the writings of the pre-exilian period we have frequent references to supernatural personalities good and bad.
Lilith, the blood-sucking night-hag of the post-exilian Isa.
The emergence of Satan as a definite supernatural personality, the head or prince of the world of evil spirits, is entirely a phenomenon of post-exilian Judaism.
The roots of this conception belong to pre-exilian times, in which the " word " of divine denunciation was regarded as a quasi-material thing.
8.) In the post-exilian cosmogony it is the divine word or fiat that creates the world (Gen.
West of Bagdad, on the Euphrates road, in or by a grove of trees, stands the shrine and tomb of Nabi Yusha or Kohen Yusha, a place of monthly pilgrimage to the Jews, who believe it to be the place of sepulture of Joshua, son of Josedech, the high priest at the close of the exilian period.
It does not, however, rank equal in importance with the other two agricultural festivals of pre-exilian Israel, viz.
But when we pass to the post-exilian legislation (Lev.
Pre-exilian, Hebrew, viz.
Clear indications of a primitive magical modus operandi appear as survivals in the narratives of the pre-exilian prophets.
The pre-exilian origin of Isa.
Here we find magic and soothsaying closely intertwined with priestly functions as, we shall see, was the case in early Hebrew pre-exilian days with the Kohen.