Starting from the wellknown fact that the habitual use of a limb tends to develop the muscles of the limb, and to produce a greater and greater facility in using it, he made the general assumption that the effort of an animal to exert an organ in a given direction tends to develop the organ in that direction.
For example: nitric acid and sulphuric acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the case of the olefines, the latter acid forms an addition product); another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable towards oxidizing agents.
The former pointed out that the supposed isomerism was not due to an arrangement of atoms, but to the disposition of a valency, and therefore it was doubtful whether such a subtle condition could exert any influence on the properties of the substance.
In this formula, the so-called " centric formula," the assumption made is that the fourth valencies are simply directed towards the centre of the ring; nothing further is said about the fourth valencies except that they exert a pressure towards the centre.
Seven navigable rivers within or on the borders of the state - the Red River of the north, the Red Lake River, Rainy River, the Minnesota, the Mississippi, the St Croix and the St Louis 1 - give facilities for transport by water that exert an important competing influence on freight charges; and at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth-Superior) many lines of steamships on the Great Lakes, providing direct or indirect connexion with the Eastern and Southern states, make that port in respect to tonnage the first in the United States.
Their movement in an upward or downward direction in Limulus and Mygale must exert a pumping action on the blood contained in the dorsal arteries and the ventral veins respectively.
Doubtless many of the smaller objects with which primitive man adorned himself, especially trophies from the animal world, were supposed to exert some beneficial or protective influence on the wearer, or to produce in him the distinguishing characteristics attributed to the object, or to the whole of which the object was a part.
Contrary, however, to the experience of others, he has never found that the attraction-spheres play an important part in direct cell-division, or, indeed, that they exert any influence whatever upon the mechanism of the process.
The female organs of certain cryptogams, for instance, exert a positive chemiotactic action upon the spermatozoids, and probably, as Pfeffer suggests, the chemical agent which exerts the influence is malic acid.
Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters.
It is joined to the rigid body-wall by numerous muscle-fibres, the contraction of which must exert a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity, thereby protruding the polypide.
Madame de Vaux's letters speak well for her good sense and good feeling, and it would have been better for Comte's later work if she had survived to exert a wholesome restraint on his exaltation.
After the outbreak of the Civil War many of the Democrats of the Middle West, who were opposed to the war policy of the Republicans, organized the Knights of the Golden Circle, pledging themselves to exert their influence to bring about peace.
The molecules of the two surface-layers will exert forces upon one another, so that, when the rubbing takes place, each layer will set the molecules of the other into motion, and the energy of rubbing will be used in establishing this heat-motion.
It is very possible that the repulsive force they exert when at a distance a - e may be greater than the attractive force they exert when at a distance a + E.
These bodies decided in 1889 and 18 9 0 to exert their influence in returning workmen to parliament, and where this was impossible, to secure pledges from middle-class candidates.
It consists of a disk of aluminium, the axis of which is geared to a counting mechanism and which runs between the poles of permanent magnets that create eddy currents in it and therefore exert a retarding force.
In this war Prince Napoleon commanded the French corps that occupied Tuscany, and it was expected that he would become ruler of the principality, but he refused to exert any pressure upon the inhabitants, who preferred union with the Italian kingdom.
Political conditions at the beginning of the middle ages favoured the Nestorian church, and the fact that the Arabs had conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt, made it possible for her to exert an influence on the Christians in these countries.
In practice he is often allowed to exert a certain discretion as to the enforcement of the laws, especially those providing for Sunday closing, and this discretion has sometimes become a source of mischief.
The city councils pass local ordinances, vote appropriations, levy taxes and generally exert some control over appointments to administrative positions.
He may have to exert more authority, even if he enjoys less dignity, than a European king.
Although he is always elected as a party candidate, he generally receives, if he shows tact and dignity, abundant respect and deference from all citizens, and is able to exert influence beyond the strict limits of his legal power.
In the first place, it would be natural that the habits of thought of the period when the Gospel was delivered orally should have continued to exert influence even after the tradition had been committed to writing.
They furnish a good manual and technical training to Hawaiian boys and girls, in addition to a primary and grammar school course of study, and exert a strong religious influence.
In order to exert force, or at all events that force of reciprocal pressure which we best understand, and on which, in impact, the third law of motion was founded, there are always at least two bodies, enduring, triply extended, mobile, each inert, mutually impenetrable or resistent, different yet similar; and in order to have produced any effect but equilibrium, some bodies must at some time have differed either in mass or in velocity, otherwise forces would only have neutralized one another.
Van't Hoff in 1885, who showed that Pfeffer's results indicated that osmotic pressure of a dilute solution conformed to the well-known laws of gas pressure, and had the same absolute value as the same number of molecules would exert as a gas filling a space equal to the value of the solvent.
He was ex officio excluded from the Legislative Assembly, and his declarations of policy were thus in writing - that is, in the form in which she could most readily exert her power.
Watson continued to exert his pen with vigour, and in general to good purpose, denouncing the slave trade, advocating the union with Ireland, and offering financial suggestions to Pitt, who seems to have frequently consulted him.
The only thing which the " Ideas " of " Reason " can do for theoretic knowledge is to exert a " regulative " function.
Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
A piston made of such a perforated substance, therefore, may be used to exert pressure on the liquid, while all the time the vapour is able to pass.
The result of our consideration, therefore, is that the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution of a volatile solute must have the same value as the gaseous pressure the same number of solute particles would exert if they occupied as gas a volume equal to that of the solution.
Were compelled to exert their diplomacy against the aggrandizing aims of the man they had themselves installed in southern Italy, and to protect the Greek emperor, with whom they were negotiating the religious question.
The chief results we have found against idealism are that bodies have not been successfully analysed except into bodies, as real matter; and that bodies are known to exert reciprocal pressure in reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity by being mutually impenetrable, as real forces.
The compounds of magnesium are not absorbed into the blood in any appreciable quantity, and therefore exert no remote actions upon other functions.
Though written in Latin, its discourses were doubtless intended to be delivered in the vulgar tongue; the clergy, however, were often too indolent or too ignorant for this, although by more than one provincial council they were enjoined to exert themselves so that they might be able to do so.'
He, however, is himself a member of the executive council as well as of some important boards or commissions, and it is in such capacity that he often has the greatest opportunity to exert power and influence.
If, therefore, the walls of the enclosure held the gas that is directly in contact with them, this equilibrium would be the actual state of affairs; and it would follow from the principle of Archimedes that, when extraneous forces such as gravity are not considered, the gas would exert no resultant force on any body immersed in it.
Electrified bodies exert mechanical forces on each other, creating or tending to create motion, and also induce electric charges on neighbouring surfaces.
As the staff fully foresaw, the enemy would exert greater vigilance than had been the case while the withdrawals had been in progress from the northern areas, these having given the Ottoman authorities warning of what was likely to happen.
These are preferably made slightly wedge-shape, to avoid the inconvenience resulting from multiple internal reflections, and they must necessarily be rather thin, so that double refractions due to internal strain may not exert a disturbing influence.