To clerics and laymen from episcopal excommunications is extended.
The clergy having thus another authority, and one moreover more canonical, to appeal to, the power of the archdeacons gradually declined; and, so far as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, it received its death-blow from the council of Trent (1564), which withdrew all matrimonial and criminal causes from the competence of the archdeacons, forbade them to pronounce excommunications, and allowed them only to hold visitations in connexion with those of the bishop and with his consent.
Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.
Gregory XIV., by the bull Ecclesiae Christi (July 28, 1591), again confirmed the Society, and granted that Jesuits might, for true cause, be expelled from the body without any form of trial or even documentary procedure, besides denouncing excommunications against every one, save the pope or his legates, who directly or indirectly infringed the constitutions of the Society or attempted to bring about any change therein.
The Franciscans had no sympathy for profane knowledge, even among the Mexicans, - sometimes publicly burning quantities of books of a scientific or miscellaneous nature; and the reading of Fenelon's Telemaque brought excommunications on a layman.
There had been mutual excommunications before, but they had not resulted in permanent schisms. Now, however, the separation was final, and the ostensible cause of its finality was the introduction by the Latins of two words Filioque into the creed.'
The great victory, however, was not so much the defeat of the papal pretensions as the demonstration that interdicts and excommunications had lost their force.
They crossed the Channel with astonishing speed; two days after the kings outburst they stood before Becket at Canterbury and threatened him with death unless he should remove the excommunications and submit to his master.
But he and his colleagues insisted, on the other hand, that for the proper maintenance of discipline, there should be a division of parishes - that excommunications should be permitted, and should be under the power of elders chosen by the council, in v.
Diceto was selected, in 1166, as the envoy of the English bishops when they protested against the excommunications launched by Becket.
There are Old-Irish Catholics, under pope's nuncios, under Abba O'Teague of the excommunications, and Owen Roe O'Neill, demanding not religious freedom only, but what we now call ` repeal of the union,' and unable to agree with Catholics of the English Pale.