On the 17th of July Innocent formally renewed the sentence of excommunication on the emperor, and declared him deposed from the imperial throne and that of Naples.
Excommunication and interdict (April 17, 1606) were met with defiance.
The pope followed with a counter excommunication, far more formidable, releasing the kings subjects from their oaths of allegiance.
There is also a lighter form of excommunication which "devotes" the goods of an offender, but only separates him from the congregation.
The fundamental principle of ecclesiastical jurisdiction with its sanction " of excommunication will be found in Christ's words in Matt.
The penalties which the spiritual court could inflict, in the period between the edict of Milan and c. 854, were properly excommunication whether generally or as exclusion from the sacraments for a term of months or years or till the day of death and (in the case of clerics) suspension or deposition.
To effect a truce, or, failing that, to renew the excommunication of Bruce.
No formal excommunication of Origen appears to have been decreed; it was considered sufficient to have him degraded to the position of a layman.
Both major and minor kinds of excommunication are recognized by the Talmud.
The use of excommunication as a form of Christian discipline is based on the precept of Christ and on apostolic practice.
9-10 Diotrephes appears to have secured an excommunication by the action of a party in the church.
It is clear from these illustrations that within the New Testament there is development from spontaneous towards strictly regulated methods; also that the use of excommunication is chiefly for disciplinary and protective rather than punitive purposes.
- The writings of the church Fathers give sufficient evidence that two degrees of excommunication, the a.diopiaµos and the a4 opu rµ r 7ravreVis, as they were generally called, were in use during, or at least soon after, the apostolic age.
For some sins, such as adultery, the sentence of excommunication was in the 2nd century regarded as iravr€X)s in the sense of being irrevocable.
But the excommunication was on all hands regarded as being "medicinal" in its character.
Innocent, like his predecessor, hated heresy, and in the bull Summis desiderantes (5th of December 1484) he instigated very severe measures against magicians and witches in Germany; he prohibited (1486) on pain of excommunication the reading of the propositions of Pico della Mirandola; he appointed (1487) T.
He therefore made alliance with Venice and Genoa, fulminated a new excommunication against Frederick, and convoked a council at Rome to ratify his ban in 1241.
In reply the pope prepared a bull of excommunication against those who should infringe the prerogatives of the Holy See in this matter.
The grand-duke, fearing an excommunication from the pope, refused the request, and left Florence for Siena and S.
Gradually, however, doubtless by way of commutation of excommunication and of penance, temporal penalties were added, as scourging, banishment, seclusion in a monastery, fines.
(k) Excommunication was either greater or less.
Early in Henry II.'s time it had become the custom of England for the court Christian: to "signify" its sentence of excommunication to the king and to demand from him a writ of significavit to the sheriff, to imprison the person excommunicated.
In some sense the king's writ of significavit was discretionary; but its issue could be enforced by excommunication or interdict.
Monitions to amend may be decreed and be enforced by significavit and writ de contumace capiendo, or by excommunication with imprisonment not to exceed six months (53 Geo.
It provided for the visitation of the clergy by the bishop, and for the power of the clergy to exclude their lay folk from the Holy Communion, subject to appeal to the bishop. Both minor and major excommunication had been in use, and for a long time public penance was required.
The bishops, particularly St Irenaeus of Lyons, declared themselves in favour of the usage of Rome, but refused to associate themselves with the excommunication pronounced by Victor against their Asiatic colleagues.
He was, however, restrained from actually proceeding to enforce the decree of excommunication, owing to the remonstrance of Irenaeus and the bishops of Gaul.
The bishops are chosen from the teachers; they are itinerant, conduct marriage and funeral services, and are present at communions, at ordinations, when deacons are chosen or elected, and at trials for the excommunication of members.
The elders are the first or oldest teachers of congregations, for which there is no regular bishop. They have charge of the meetings of such congregations, and participate in excommunication proceedings, besides which they preach, exhort, baptize, and may, when needed, take the offices of the deacons.
For a time, indeed, the Order lay under papal sentence of excommunication; but the transference of his seat to Marienburg at this time (1308) gave the grand master a basis from which he was able to make easy terms with the pope.
The support given to him by the national church in spite of his excommunication must have been of great importance in that age, and was probably due to the example of Lamberton.
An English translation of the Theses, with brief life of Erastus (based on Melchior Adam's account), was issued in 1659, entitled The Nullity of Church Censures; it was reprinted as A Treatise of Excommunication (1682), and, as revised by Robert Lee, D.D., in 1844.
Three of Pithou's brothers acquired distinction as jurists: Jean (1524-1602), author of Traite de police et du gouvernement des republiques, and, in collaboration with his twin brother Nicolas (1524-1598), of Institution du mariage chretien; and Franccois (1543-1621), author of Glossarium ad libros capitularium (1588), Traite de ?excommunication et de l'interdit, &c. (1587).
On those who refused to submit to their decisions they had the power of inflicting severe penalties, of which excommunication from society was the most dreaded.
He sailed back to Otranto in order to recover his health, but the new pope, Gregory IX., launched in hot anger the bolt of excommunication, in the belief that Frederick was malingering once more.
To enter his capital: as one under excommunication, he had to see an interdict immediately fall on the city, and it was with his own hands - for no churchman could perform the office - that he had to take his crown from the altar of the church of the Sepulchre, and crown himself king of his new kingdom.
The Franciscans gave him no encouragement to remain; and the provincial threatened him with excommunication if he persisted.
In it he deals with ecclesiastical jurisdiction, penances, indulgences, crusades and pilgrimages, vows, excommunication, the pope and the council, marriage and divorce.
Which he showed to the archbishop. At this juncture a sentence of excommunication would have been a dangerous blow to Henry's power in England.
The bishops denounced sentence of excommunication against all transgressors, and soon after Howel himself went to Rome attended by the archbishop of St David's, the bishops of Bangor and St Asaph and thirteen other personages.
And the Holy Office, on the 7th of March, pronounced the major excommunication against him.
Throughout these years he declined to remove the sentence of excommunication which he had passed upon Michael, and after his death, when the new patriarch Josephus gave absolution to the emperor, the quarrel was carried on between the "Arsenites" and the "Josephists."
Far firmer is the tone of his later letter to the same archbishop, where he contends from historical evidence that the papal judgment is not infallible, and encourages his brother prelate not to fear excommunication in a righteous cause, for it is not in the power even of the successor of Peter "to separate an innocent priest from the love of Christ."
The friar's sermons against ecclesiastical corruption, and especially against the pope, resulted in his excommunication by the latter, in consequence of which he lost much of his influence and immorality spread once more.
The penalties in the canon law included, in addition to restitution, penance, fines and excommunication; and right of asylum was denied to the culprit.
During the 17th century the indulgence in tobacco spread with marvellous rapidity throughout all nations, and that in the face of the most resolute opposition of statesmen and priests, the " counterblaste " of a great monarch, penal enactments of the most severe description, the knout, excommunication and capital punishment.
Shortly afterwards the threatened bull of excommunication was launched against him, and Fra Mariano was in Rome stimulating the pope's wrath.
But in July Savonarola's friends were again in power and did their best to have his excommunication removed.
Apparently, if a proper case could be made out, an ecclesiastical court might still sentence a layman to excommunication for heresy, but by no other means could his opinions be brought under censure.
This was the commencement of the excommunication or secession of the Montanists in Asia Minor.
It was before him that the Reformer appeared at the diet of Augsburg; and it was he who, in 1519, helped in drawing up the bull of excommunication against Luther.
The result of their report was that all pilgrimage thither from the province of Bohemia was prohibited by the archbishop on pain of excommunication, while Huss, with the full sanction of his superior, gave to the world his first published writing, entitled De Omni Sanguine Christi Glorificato, in which he declaimed in no measured terms against forged miracles and ecclesiastical greed, urging Christians at the same time to desist from looking for sensible signs of Christ's presence, but rather to seek Him in His enduring word.
This decree, as soon as it was published in Prague (March 9, 1410), led to much popular agitation, and provoked an appeal by Huss to the pope's better informed judgment; the archbishop, however, resolutely insisted on carrying out his instructions, and in the following July caused to be publicly burned, in the courtyard of his own palace, upwards of 200 volumes of the writings of Wycliffe, while he pronounced solemn sentence of excommunication against Huss and certain of his friends, who had in the meantime again protested and appealed to the new pope (John XXIII.).
A popular demonstration, in which the papal bulls had been paraded through the streets with circumstances of peculiar ignominy and finally burnt, led to intervention by Wenceslaus on behalf of public order; three young men, for having openly asserted the unlawfulness of the papal indulgence after silence had been enjoined, were sentenced to death (June 1412); the excommunication against Huss was renewed, and the interdict again laid on all places which should give him shelter - a measure which now began to be more strictly regarded by the clergy, so that in the following December Huss had no alternative but to yield to the express wish of the king by temporarily withdrawing from Prague.
The history of the practice of excommunication may be traced through (1) pagan analogues, (2) Hebrew custom, (3) primitive Christian practice, (4) medieval and monastic usage, (5) modern survivals in existing Christian churches.
The major excommunication (herem) excluded from the Temple as well as the synagogue and from all association with the faithful.
If it be the same it indicates that the excommunication had not been final; the offender had been received back.
20 ("Hymenaeus and Alexander whom I delivered unto Satan that they might be taught not to blaspheme") seems to refer to an excommunication, but it does not appear whether the apostle had acted as representing a church, nor is there anything to explain the exact consequences or limits of the deliverance to Satan.