The exchanges of domestic products are less important than they should be.
In a large city, where several inter - connected exchanges have to be built and thousands of subscribers are put into communication with each other, the service is at once more costly and more valuable than in a small town with a few hundred subscribers accommodated in one exchange.
It is not practicable to connect each subscriber directly to all the others, hence a system of exchanges has been adopted.
Subscribers to exchanges may also make arrangements to have all telegrams (except Press telegrams) ad - dressed to them delivered by telephone instead of messenger.
After bold and repeated overtures for an exchange of prisoners - an important matter, both because the American frigates had no place in which to - stow away their prisoners, and because of the maltreatment _ of American captives in such prisons as Dartmoor - exchanges began at the end of March 1779, although there were annoying delays, and immediately after November 1781 there was a long break in the agreement; and the Americans discharged from English prisons were constantly in need of money.
While Balfour Stewart's work on the theory of exchanges was too easily understood and therefore too easily ignored, the weak points in Kirchhoff's developments are only now beginning to be perceived.
The present building is, however, the largest of the kind in the world, and the history of the various exchanges coincides with the expansion of the Lancashire industry.
By their edgy exchanges, he could tell Rissa knew her advisor posed some danger.
The territory in which a telephone administration operates is usually divided into a number of local areas, in each of which one or more exchanges are placed.
When the subscribers in a local area exceed a certain number, or when for some other reason it is not convenient or economical to connect all the subscribers in the area to one exchange, it is usual to divide the area into a number of districts in each of which an exchange is placed, and to connect these district exchanges together by means of " junction circuits."
In some cases the exchanges are connected together directly; but when the volume of traffic is not sufficient to warrant the adoption of such a course connexions between two exchanges are made through junction centres to which both are connected.
A system of wires, similar to that which connects the district exchanges in an area, links together the various local areas in the territory, and sometimes the territory of one administration with that of another.
These inter-area or long-distance lines, called trunk circuits in England, terminate at one exchange in each local area, and between that exchange and the various district exchanges junction circuits are provided for the purpose of connecting subscribers to the trunk lines.
There are still many magneto exchanges in existence, but when new exchanges are erected only the very smallest are equipped for magneto working, that system having succumbed to the common battery one in the case of all equipments of moderate and large dimensions.
Of the calls originated at an exchange are for subscribers connected to other exchanges, and in these cases the junction plant forms a considerable fraction of the whole equipment.
The junction circuits connecting two exchanges are invariably divided into two groups, one for traffic from exchange A to exchange B, the other for traffic from B to A.
In city districts the modern practice is to restrict the number to four stations per line, and to equip the exchanges and stations for selective ringing.
If there be a line free, or when the turn of the call is reached, particulars of the connexion wanted are passed to the distant end, and the trunk operators request the local exchanges to connect the subscribers by means of junction I F..?
Circuits to the trunk exchanges where the necessary connexions are made between the trunk line and the junctions.
The call is controlled by the trunk operators, the junction circuits being equipped in such a manner that the subscribers' signals appear at the trunk exchanges, from which point disconnecting signals are sent automatically to the local exchanges, when the connexions between the trunk and the junction circuits are removed.
The large modern trunk exchanges are equipped with relays and lamps for signalling purposes.
The Post Office at the same time established several telephone exchanges in provincial towns so as to enable the PostmasterGeneral " to negotiate with the telephone companies in a satisfactory manner for licences."
It compelled the companies to sell their trunk wires to the Post Office, leaving the local exchanges in the hands of the companies.
The Telegraph Act 1899, while providing for intercommunication between the telephone systems of the local authorities and the company, did not give the Post Office the right to demand intercommunication between its exchanges and those of the company.
The total number of subscribers to the Post Office provincial exchanges on the 31st of March 1907 (excluding those in Glasgow and Brighton) was 10,010, and the number of telephones rented was 12,006.
Owing to the hostility of the French market, the loan was covered with difficulty, and, though the gold premium fell and commercial exchanges were temporarily facilitated by the resumption of cash payments, it is doubtful whether these advantages made up for the burden of 640,000 additional annual interest thrown upon the exchequer.
The smaller company exchanges its stock for stock of the larger system on an agreed basis, or sells it outright, and the bondholders of the absorbed line often have a similar opportunity to exchange their securities for obligations cf the parent company, which are on a stronger basis or have a broader market.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
Bastable's works on International Trade and Public Finance; George Clare on the Money Market and the Foreign Exchanges; and A.
Hammond 1 has constructed a table from information supplied by the secretaries of the cotton exchanges at New York, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston, showing the sales of " spot " cotton at those ports for the twenty-two years between 1874-1875 and 1895-1896, and in all cases an absolute decline is evident.
Vii.); articles by Chapman and Knoop in the Economic Journal (December, 1904) and the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (April, 1906); Emery's Speculation on Stock and Produce Exchanges of the United States (small portions of which relate to cotton).
Cherbourg was given to the French king; certain exchanges of land were made; and in the following year Charles III.
1843) and his disciples, it was proved that the cerebrum is occupied by many such centres or exchanges, which preside over the formulation of sensations into purposive groups of motions - kinaesthesis of H.
The Post Office thereupon instituted a separate system of exchanges and lines, intercommunication between the two systems being arranged.
Besides the Royal Exchange, in the building of which are numerous offices, including " Lloyd's," the centre of the shipping business and marine insurance, there are many exchanges for special articles.
The terrible conditions obtaining there were due to the lack of food supplies in the Confederate States, the incompetence of the prison officials, and the refusal of the Federal authorities in 1864 to make exchanges of prisoners, thus filling the stockade with unlooked-for numbers.
A system of inter-colonial weather exchanges has been agreed upon, and telegrams are daily exchanged between Sydney and Wellington.
There are also branches which deal with the census of production, labour exchanges, &c.
They found that the absorbing powers of the metals, and therefore, by the principle of exchanges, their radiating powers also, are proportional to the square roots of their electric conductivities.
The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards India.
His teaching on the subject is not altogether unqualified; but, on the whole, with respect to exchanges of every kind, where economic motives alone enter, his voice is in favour of freedom.
The Conservatives distrusted the financial activity which centred round the Exchanges of Berlin and other towns, and in this they had the sympathy of Agrarians and Anti-S emites, as well as of the Centre.
The members of the Exchanges in Berlin and ether towns refused to accept this law.
Such verbal resemblances as exist between Coptic and Semitic are largely due to late exchanges with Semitic neighbors.
The word appears in an English act of 1336 in the French form "puissent sauvement porter a les exchanges ou bullion.
From 1869 to 1875 registered mail exchanges were opened with China, Japan, Hawaii and Australia.
Its principal products are cotton, wheat and opium - the anti-opium decrees of 1906 had little effect on the province up to 1910 - and these it exchanges with the neighbouring provinces for coal, iron, salt, &c. Kao-liang, pulse, millet, maize, groundnut, barley, beans, pease, lucerne, and rape seed are also grown.
In 1879 telephone exchanges began to be developed in the United States, Great Britain and other countries.
These yielded a remarkable extension of Pierre Provost's "Law of Exchanges," and enabled him to establish the fact that radiation is not a surface phenomenon, but takes place throughout the interior of the radiating body, and that the radiative and absorptive powers of a substance must be equal, not only for the radiation as a whole, but also for every constituent of it.
281), King lEthelberht exchanges five hides of folkland for five hides of bookland which had formerly belonged to a thane, granting the latter for the newly-acquired estates exemption from all fiscal exactions except the threefold public obligation of attending the fyrd and joining in the repair of fortresses and bridges.
Cooking-pots, made at various parts of the coast, form one of the great exchanges for sago; but where such vessels do not reach, food is cooked by the women on the embers, done up in leaves, or in holes in the ground over heated stones.
Foreign exchanges rose, exports decreased, the railway traffic declined, and the commercial classes and consumers of foreign goods and products were loud in their protests.
Industrial interests alone benefited, and imported more raw materials, chemicals, and coal and coke, which naturally influenced the exchanges adversely.
This was the starting-point of the decline in foreign trade, the advance of foreign exchanges, the decay of railway traffic, and the monetary and financial crisis which continued from 1892 to 1898.