The south-eastern portion of the city has been excavated only very partially.
At Halicarnassus (q.v.) the Mausoleum, the monument erected by Artemisia to her husband Mausolus, about 360 B.C., was excavated by Sir C. T.
There are no ruins, but a considerable quantity of debris; and the pre-Roman necropolis was partially excavated in 1882.
It will be convenient here to give a general view of the more important Minoan remains recently excavated on various Cretan sites.
Melos, long marked as a source of early objects, but not systematically excavated until taken in hand by the British School at Athens in 1896, yielded at Phylakope remains of all the Aegean periods, except the Neolithic. A map of Cyprus in the later Bronze Age (such as is given by J.
A trench was first excavated to the proper depth, then the side walls and arched roof of brick were put in place, earth was filled in behind and over the arch, and the surface of the ground restored, either by paving where streets were followed, or by actually being built over with houses where the lines passed under private property.
A little to the south of a village called Deir Diwan, and one hour's journey south-east from Bethel, is the site of an ancient place called Khirbet Haiydn, indicated by reservoirs hewn in the rock, excavated tombs and foundations of hewn stone.
The basin here excavated by ten years of labour, lying 385 ft.
The substructure was excavated in 188 3 by F.
Dynasty, with interesting sculptures of Neb-hepet Re (the king whose tomb temple at Deir el Bahri was excavated by Naville and Hall for the Egypt Exploration Fund in 1903-7) has been found,.
Their arid country was the best safeguard of their cherished liberty; for the bottle-shaped cisterns for rain-water which they excavated in the rocky or argillaceous soil were carefully concealed from invaders.
Aurelius by the Senatus Fidenatium, was excavated in 1889.
For the scientific construction of a green, the whole ground must be excavated to a depth of 18 in.
In 1907-8 the Canaanite Jericho was excavated under the direction of Prof. Sellin of Vienna.
The shafts are placed so close together that in many instances they are divided by only a couple of feet of solid ground, but at their bases a considerable amount of gallery work has been excavated, though it is possible that this was done by miners who came after the people who originally sank the shafts.
The whole district of Casas Grandes is further studded with artificial mounds, from which are excavated from time to time large numbers of stone axes, metates or corn-grinders, and earthern vessels of various kinds.
It has direct communication with the sea by a ship-canal, greatly enlarged and deepened since 1895, which connects the Grand Basin, stretching along the north side of the city, with a spacious harbour excavated at Terneuzen on the Scheldt, 212 m.
None of the pre-Buddhistic sites have as yet been excavated; and, with one doubtful exception, no inscriptions older than the texts have as yet been found.
The Atrato at one time attracted considerable attention as a feasible route for a trans-isthmian canal, which, it was estimated, could be excavated at a cost of ii,000,000.
The important prehistoric necropolis of Anghelu Ruju was excavated in 1904 62 m.
The soil of Russia depends chiefly on the distribution of the boulder-clay and loess.
Portion of the acropolis, which contains several temples, has been excavated: in the rest private houses seem to predominate.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
An endeavour is made so to plan the works of a railway that the quantity of earth excavated in cuttings shall be equal to the quantity required for the embankments; but this is not always practicable, and it is sometimes advantageous to obtain the earth from some source close to the embankment rather than incur the expense of hauling it from a distant cutting.
This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.
Cnidus (q.v.) was excavated at the same time, when the "Cnidian Lion," now in the British Museum, was found crowning a tomb near the site of the old city (C. T.
Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale.
The Stadium, in which the Panathenaic Games were held, was first laid out by the orator Lycurgus about 330 B.C. It was an oblong structure filling a natural depression near the left bank of the Ilissus beneath the eastern de clivity of the Ardettus hill, the parallel sides and semicircular end, or acev50vn, around the arena being partially excavated from the adjoining slopes.
G p Atticus in memory of his wife Regilla, is comparatively well preserved; it was excavated in 1848 and in 1857-1858.
It also possesses the famous collection of prehistoric antiquities found by Schliemann at Tiryns and Mycenae, other " Mycenaean " objects discovered at Nauplia and in Attica, as well as the still earlier remains excavated by Tsountas in the Cyclades and by the British School at Phylakopi in Melos; terra-cottas from Tanagra and Asia immense building, however, which was restored in 1896 and the following years, was that constructed in Pentelic marble about A.D.
The township includes the Maori village of Ohinemutu, an interesting collection of native dwellings, whose inmates constantly use the numerous rudely excavated baths which are fed by springs varying in temperature from 60° F.
Some of the rock chambers originally intended for tombs were afterwards converted, perhaps under pressure of necessity, into habitations, as in the case of the so-called " Prison of Socrates," which consists of three chambers horizontally excavated and a small round apartment of the " beehive " type.
But the numerous vertically excavated tombs outside the walls are of late date and belong for the most part to the Roman period.
The scanty traces which remain have not been systematically excavated except in the neighbourhood of the Dipylon; the discovery of sepulchral tablets built into the masonry illustrates the statement of Thucydides with regard to the employment of such material in the hasty construction of the walls.
Immediately west of the theatre of Dionysus is the sacred precinct of Asclepius, which was excavated by the Archaeological Society in 1876-1878.
Built the long portico west of the Dionysiac theatre, which was excavated and identified in 1877; Attalus II.
The peribolos, a large artificial platform supported by a retaining wall of squared Peiraic blocks with buttresses, was excavated in 1898 without important results; it is to be hoped that the stability of the columns has not been affected by the operations.
Among the monuments of this age discovered in the surrounding districts are the rock hewn tombs of Spata, accidentally revealed by a landslip in 1877, and the domed sepulchre at Menidi, near the ancient Acharnae, excavated by Lolling in 1879.
A burial mound over the ashes of some distinguished person) which were excavated, in 1874, by his assistant, J.
South-eastern Sicily, ever since P. Orsi excavated the Sicel cemetery near Lentini in 1877, has proved a mine of early remains, among which appear in regular succession Aegean fabrics and motives of decoration from the period of the second stratum at Hissarlik.
The coffins are of small size, contain corpses with the knees drawn up to the chin and are found in excavated chambers or pits.
In the later period a peculiar "bee-hive" tomb became common, sometimes wholly or partly excavated, sometimes (as in the magnificent Mycenaean "Treasuries") constructed domewise.