In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and examinations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines it had supplanted.
Higher education is represented by the provincial university, which teaches science and mathematics, holds examinations, distributes scholarships, and grants degrees in all subjects.
The examinations are three in number.
At St Petersburg a women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D.
In several university towns there are free teaching establishments for women, supported by subscription, with programmes and examinations equal to those of the universities.
In 1862 she became secretary to the committee which was formed for the purpose of procuring the admission of women to university examinations, and from 1870 to 1873 was a member of the London school board.
Many Basuto at the public examinations take higher honours than competitors of European descent.
The "Cleveland plan," in force in the public schools, minimizes school routine, red tape and frequent examinations, puts great stress on domestic and manual training courses, and makes promotion in the grammar schools depend on the general knowledge and development of the pupil, as estimated by a teacher who is supposed to make a careful study of the individual.
' The most remarkable feature of the discussion since 1862 is that the successive examinations of the subject have led to a continually diminishing value, so that at the present time it seems possible that the actual parallax of the sun is almost as near to the old value of Encke as to that which first replaced it.
The candidate whose work is notified as tres bien is admitted to the examinations at Hue, which qualify for the title of doctor and the holding of administrative offices.
The function of the academic department is to control the teaching branch, internal examinations, &c., and that of the external department to control external examinations, while the university extension system occupies a third department.
- The Royal Institute of British Architects, Conduit Street, conducts examinations and awards diplomas.
The College of Preceptors, Bloomsbury, conducts examinations of persons engaged in education and awards diplomas.
In the case of the cheaper and more abundant minerals, such as coal and iron ore, and of large deposits of low-grade ores, the extent and character of the deposit can generally be determined by surface examinations at comparatively small expense.
On one of the islands in the lake is the great Wen-lan-ko or pavilion of literary assemblies, and it is said that at the examinations for the second degree, twice every three years, from 10,000 to 15,000 candidates come together.
In 1900 she entered Radcliffe College, and successfully passed the examinations in mathematics, &c. for her degree of A.
After passing his final examinations in 1825, he spent a year in Switzerland, during part of the time acting as companion and secretary to C. von Bonstetten (1745-1832); the year 1827 was spent chiefly in Rome.
An order in council was enacted in 1899 providing that no Maltese (except students of theology) should thenceforth suffer any detriment through inability to pass examinations in Italian, in either the schools or university, but the fraction of the Maltese who claim to speak Italian (13.24%) still command sufficient influence to hamper the full enjoyment of this emancipation by the majority.
In 655, after repeated examinations, in which he maintained his theological opinions with memorable constancy, he was banished to Byzia in Thrace, and afterwards to Perberis.
- Periodical examinations of the coins issued by the Mint have been made from very early times in England by persons appointed by the Crown.
The state controls professional and technical schools through the regents' examinations of candidates for admission to such schools and to the professions, determines the minimum requirements for admission to college by the regents' academic examinations, maintains the large State Library and the valuable State Museum, and occasionally makes a gift to a college or a university for the support of courses in practical industries; but it maintains no college or university that is composed of a teaching body.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
The annual reports, of which he was the chief author, became controversial pamphlets; he published bold replies to criticisms upon the work of the Commission; he explained its purposes to newspaper correspondents; when Congress refused to appropriate the amount which he believed essential for the work, he made the necessary economies by abandoning examinations of candidates for the Civil Service in those districts whose representatives in Congress had voted to reduce the appropriation, thus very shrewdly bringing their adverse vote into disfavour among their own constituents; and during the six years of his commissionership more than twenty thousand positions for government employes were taken out of the realm of merely political appointment and added to the classified service to be obtained and retained for merit only.
Among the definitions of sovereignty may be quoted these: "That which decides in questions of war and peace, and of making or dissolving alliances, and about laws and capital punishment, and exiles and fines, and audit of accounts and examinations of administrators after their term of office" (Aristotle, Politics, 4.4.
The Medico-Psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland holds examinations and grants certificates in mental nursing; candidates must undergo three years' regular training, with instruction by lectures, &c., which may be obtained in a large number of public asylums by arrangement with the Association; one county asylum (Northampton) gives its own certificates after a three years' course.
His lectures were thinly attended, for he did not care to adapt them to the requirements of the university examinations, and he was not perhaps well fitted to teach young men.
They contain an admirable collection, well housed and carefully managed, a specially interesting feature being the careful quarantine system of new arrivals and the post-mortem examinations of animals that have died.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
Milton, in his Tractate on Education (1644), advances further on Bacon's lines, protesting against the length of time spent on instruction in language, denouncing merely verbal knowledge, and recommending the study of a large number of classical authors for the sake of their subject appointed to consider the studies and examinations of the university, their report of November 1904 on the Previous Examination was fully discussed, and the speeches published in the Reporter for December 17, 1904.
At the Head Masters' Conference of December 1907 a proposal to lower the standard of Greek in the entrance scholarship examinations of public schools was lost by 10 votes to 16, and the " British Association report " was adopted with reservations in 1908.
The superintendent of public instruction is appointed by the governor and council for a term of two years, and it is his duty to prescribe the form of register to be kept in the schools, to investigate the condition of the schools, to make suggestions and recommendations for improving them, to lecture upon educational subjects in the towns and cities, to hold at least one teachers' institute each year in each of the counties, and to designate the times and places for holding examinations of those who wish to teach.
The undergraduate has certain examinations in each year, and four "commencements" are held every year for the purpose of conferring degrees.
No teaching was carried on, but examinations were held and degrees conferred, both on men and on women.
New York, Massachusetts and a few other states have systems of civil service examinations, similar to those in the Federal administration, which serve to keep certain branches out of politics.
The civil service commission, established in 1883, conducts competitive examinations for appointments to subordinafe positions under all of the administrative departments.
Nevertheless the system of competitive examinations for appointments was introduced in some of the great executive departments in Washington, and in the custom-house and the post-office in New York.
After studying in his native town and taking the university course in Berlin (1842-1843) he went to Paris, and passed first in the examination for fellowship (agregation) of the lycees (1845), first in the examinations on leaving the Ecole des Chartes, and first in the examination for fellowship of the faculties (1849).
More detailed examinations of the " canal-rays " by J.
Its main disadvantage is the lack of harbours - Honolulu and Pearl Harbor are the only ones in the archipelago; but under the River and Harbour Act of 1905 examinations and surveys were made to improve Hilo Bay on the island of Hawaii.
In1678-1679he spent some time at Grenoble as tutor in a private family; on his return to Geneva he passed his examinations and received ordination.
A Rechtsanwalt, having studied law at a university for four years and having passed two state examinations, if desiring to practise must be admitted as defending counsel by the Arnlsgericht or Landgericht, or by both.
The Corwin or "Witch" house, so called from a tradition that Jonathan Corwin, one of the judges in the witchcraft trials, held preliminary examinations of witches here, is said to have been the property of Roger Williams. The Pickering house, built before 1660, was the homestead of Timothy Pickering and of other members of that family.
He studied at Aberdeen, and, after passing his law examinations in Edinburgh, he quickly took a leading position at the Scottish bar, being made a Lord of Session in 1767 with the title of Lord Monboddo.
The student who has passed his examinations at Constantinople or Cairo may take up the purely religious office of imam (president in worship) or khatib (preacher) at a mosque.
In this department Schurz put in force his theories in regard to merit in the Civil Service, permitting no removals except for cause, and requiring competitive examinations for candidates for clerkships; he reformed the Indian Bureau and successfully opposed a bill transferring it to theWar Department; and he prosecuted land thieves and attracted public attention to the necessity of forest preservation.
He gave the counsel of perfection that "pass" examinations ought to cease; but he recognized that this change "must wait on the reorganization of the educational institutions immediately below the university, at which a passman ought to finish his career."
- The oldest known system of examinations in history is that used in China for the selection of officers for the public service (c. 1115 B.e.), and the periodic tests which they undergo after entry (c. 2200 B.C.).
Bullock, " Competitive Examinations in China " (Nineteenth Century, July 1894); and Etienne Zi, Pratique des examens litteraires en Chine (Shanghai, 1894).
The majority of examinations in western countries are derived from the university examinations of the middle ages.
The early universities of Europe, being under the same religious authority and animated by the same philosophy, resembled each other very closely in curriculum and general organization and examinations, and by the authority of the emperor, or of the pope in most cases, the permission to teach granted by one university was valid in all (jus ubicunque docendi).
The earliest university examinations of which a description is available are those in civil and in canon law held at Bologna at a period subsequent to 1219.
At their worst, even with venal examiners (and additional fees were often offered as a bribe), Rashdall regards these examinations (at the end of the 13th century) as probably " less of a farce than the pass examinations of Oxford and Cambridge almost within the memory of persons now living."
In the medieval examinations described above we find most of the elements of our present examinations: certificates of previous study and good conduct, preparation of set-books, questioning on subjects not specially prepared, division of examinations into various parts, classification in order of merit, payment of fees, the presentation of a dissertation, and the defence and publication of a thesis (a term of which the meaning has now become extended).
Rouse Ball in his History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge (1889), p. 193, states that he can find no record of any European examinations by means of written papers earlier than those introduced by R.
The number of subjects in which examinations are held has since grown immensely.
Examinations were definitely introduced for the B.A.
Further changes were made in 1807 and 1825; and in 1830 a distinction was made between honours examinations of a more difficult character, at which successful candidates were divided into four classes, and pass examinations of an easier character.
The standard of examinations was raised in Cambridge at an earlier date than at Oxford, and in the 18th century the tripos " established the reputation of Cambridge as a School of Mathematical Science."
At Cambridge there is no intermediate examination between the " Previous Examination " (commonly called " Little-go "), which corresponds to Oxford " Responsions " or " Smalls " and the triposes and examinations for the " Poll " degree, which correspond to the Oxford final honours and pass examinations respectively.
The incorporation of the university of London in 1836 marks an era in the history of examinations; the teaching and examining functions of a university were dissociated for the first time.
Until 1858 the London examinations were open only to students in affiliated colleges, and the teachers had no share in the appointment of the examiners or indetermining the curricula for examinations; in 1858 the examinations were thrown open to all comers, and no requirements were insisted on with regard to courses of study except for degrees in the faculty of medicine.
The sole function of the university was to examine, and its examinations for matriculation and for degrees in arts and science were carried on by means of written papers not only in London but in many centres in the United Kingdom and the colonies.
Perhaps an explanation of the method that was in use when I took my examinations will not be amiss here.
It was thought advisable for me to have my examinations in a room by myself, because the noise of the typewriter might disturb the other girls.
In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
All the other preliminary examinations were conducted in the same manner.
At the beginning we had agreed that I should, if necessary, take five years to prepare for college, but at the end of the first year the success of my examinations showed Miss Sullivan, Miss Harbaugh (Mr.
Two days before the examinations, Mr. Vining sent me a braille copy of one of the old Harvard papers in algebra.
The administrative board of Radcliffe did not realize how difficult they were making my examinations, nor did they understand the peculiar difficulties I had to surmount.
But the examinations are the chief bugbears of my college life.
One could have traveled round the word many times while I trudged my weary way through the labyrinthine mazes of grammars and dictionaries, or fell into those dreadful pitfalls called examinations, set by schools and colleges for the confusion of those who seek after knowledge.
As soon as my examinations were over, Miss Sullivan and I hastened to this green nook, where we have a little cottage on one of the three lakes for which Wrentham is famous.
The "examinations" mentioned in this letter were merely tests given in the school, but as they were old Harvard papers, it is evident that in some subjects Miss Keller was already fairly well prepared for Radcliffe.
You will be glad to hear that I passed my examinations successfully.
They were the entrance examinations for Harvard College; so I feel pleased to think I could pass them.
All the time I was preparing for the great ordeal, I could not suppress an inward fear and trembling lest I should fail, and now it is an unspeakable relief to know that I have passed the examinations with credit.
Of course they did not realize how difficult and perplexing they were making the examinations for me.
She said I had already shown the world that I could do the college work, by passing all my examinations successfully, in spite of many obstacles.
The facts about the braille examinations are as follows:
How I passed my Entrance Examinations for Radcliffe College.
On the 29th and 30th of June, 1899, I took my examinations for Radcliffe College.
I write all my themes and examinations on it, even Greek.
"Those who pass the examinations, I suppose," replied Kochubey, crossing his legs and glancing round.