The study of instinct is in the genetic treatment of evolutionary science a study in heredity.
To the evolutionary biologist brain is apt to appear to be the crowning object of knowledge.
In fact, the whole history of the Platyelmia is marked by a great specialization of the reproductive evolutionary history, accompanied by a simple somatic line of evolution.
The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.
This gave immense vogue to wider and vaguer theories of evolutionary process, notably to H.
Thus it might be argued that there can be no logical combination of elements from Christian ethics, with its divine sanction, and purely intuitional or evolutionary ethical theories, where the sanction is essentially different in quality.
The next type of heresy may be called evolutionary or formatory.
Flesh-eating entailing necessarily an immense volume of pain upon the sentient animal creation should be abstained from by the "higher classes" in the evolutionary scale.
They pursued a Marxist programme aiming at the socialization of the State, the means of production and consumption: they were opposed to a dictatorship of the proletariat, and were for evolutionary as opposed to revolutionary methods.
Both the systems which are handed down under his name by Irenaeus and Hippolytus, that of emanations and the monistic-evolutionary system, represent further developments of his ideas with a tendency away from dualism towards monism.
Ritchie's Natural Rights, from the point of view of a very hostile (evolutionary) idealism, sketches the early history of the phrase Natural Law.'
In the sequel he prepared a new evolutionary signal-book, which was adopted by the royal navy, and still remains in substance the foundation of the existing system of tactical evolutions at sea.
This series of feet represents the evolutionary succession from the Eocene Hypohippus (I) to the modern Equus (6) seen in front and in side view.
But the main factor in evolutionary process was undoubtedly the formation of hs, which brought gods of independent origin into relation ii one another, and thus imbued them with human passions virtues.
After Mill means after Kant and Hegel and Herbart, and it means after the emergence of evolutionary naturalism.
The histories of all the great religious and philosophic movements show them as developments of an evolutionary process, arriving at their accepted dogmas through long periods of contention between numerous tendencies.
But it is precisely this, the only logical inference, which most evolutionary philosophers are unwilling to draw.
Hegel's system is, in its own way, a great evolutionary philosophy of an ideal type.
On the ground that after the virtues of courage and valour and fearlessness have been taught in the lower stages of evolution, the virtue of gentle humane ness and extended sympathy for all that can suffer should be taught in the higher cycles of the evolutionary spiral.
A very important evolutionary principle is that in such secondary returns to primary phases lost organs are never recovered, but new organs are acquired; hence the force of Dollo's dictum that evolution is irreversible from the point of view of structure, while frequently reversible, or recurrent, in point of view of the conditions of environment and adaptation.
Buffon accounted a grave defect of nature, and it must be confessed that no one has given what seems to be a satisfactory explanation of its precise use, though on evolutionary principles none will now doubt its fitness to the bird's requirements.
On the 9th of December he had been made viceadmiral, and in 1871 he commanded the fleet at Toulon; in 1875 he was a member of the council of admiralty; and in October 1876 he was appointed to command the evolutionary squadron in the Mediterranean.
But while there are foreshadowings of the evolutionary theory in this work, neither the philosophe historians nor Hume nor Gibbon arrived at a constructive principle in history which could take the place of the Providence they rejected.
From an evolutionary point of view, it is of interest to note the occurrence of filicinean and cycadean characters in the maidenhair tree.
The comparative anatomy of living forms, combined with the evolutionary hypothesis sketched above, suggests that the early holothurians possessed the following characters: subvective grooves entirely closed; 5 radial canals, proceeding from the water-ring, gave off branches furnished with ampullae to the podia on each side of them, the 10 anterior podia being changed into cylindrical tentacles; the transverse muscles of the body-wall formed a circular layer, probably interrupted at the radii (though Ludwig believes the contrary); longitudinal muscles as paired radial bands, without those special retractors for withdrawing the anterior part of the body which occur in many recent forms; a hydropore connected with the water-ring by a canal in the dorsal mesentery; a gonopore behind the hydropore connected by a single duct with a bunch of genital pouches on each side of the mesentery; gut dextrally coiled, with a simple blood-vascular system, and with an enlargement at the anus for respiration, this eventually producing branched caeca called "respiratory trees"; skeleton reduced to a ring of 5 radial and 5 interradial plates round the gullet, and small plates, with a hexagonally meshed network, dispersed through the integument.
Gregory divides this into four suborders, each representing a distinct evolutionary series; i.
Loisy may have successors who will champion theories of evolutionary transformation.
That attempt has not, in the opinion of the majority of critics, been successful, and perhaps what is most permanent in the contribution of modern times to ethical theory will ultimately be attributed to philosophers antagonistic to evolutionary ethics.
And both evolutionary and idealistic ethics agree in repudiating the standpoint of narrowindividualism, alike insist upon the necessity of regarding the self as social in character, and regard the end of moral progress as only realizable in a perfect society.
It was in Herbert Spencer, the triumphant " buccinator novi temporis," that the advocates of evolutionary ethics found.
It is frequently impossible to discover whether he wishes by an appeal to evolutionary principles to reinforce the sanctions and emphasize the absolute character of the traditional morality which in the main he accepts without question from the current opinions about conduct of his age, or whether he wishes to discredit and disprove the validity of that morality in order to substitute by the aid of the biological sciences a new ethical code.
The fact is that with few exceptions evolutionary moral philosophers evade the choice between alternatives which is always presented to them.
Perhaps the one European thinker who has carried evolutionary principles in ethics to their logical conclusion is Friedrich Nietzsche.
For he saw clearly that to be successful evolutionary ethics must involve the " transvaluation of all values," the " demoralization " of all ordinary current morality.
Green's principal objection to evolutionary moral philosophy is contained in the argument that no merely " natural " explanation of the facts of morality is conceivable.
It would be true on the whole to assert that evolutionary systems of ethics such as those of Herbert Spencer, Sir Leslie Stephen or Professor S.
And Martineau is curiously unsympathetic to the universal and social aspect of morality with which evolutionary and idealist moral philosophers are so largely occupied.
To the accompaniment of the drum, dancing - as a rhythmic but stationary movement of the feet or an evolutionary march - almost invariably goes, but rarely singing.
The question as to which theory came first, whether Alcheringaism is a scientific effort that swept away All-Fatherism, or whether All-Fatherism is a religious reaction in despair of science and of the evolutionary doctrine, is settled by each inquirer in accordance with his personal bias.
Breaks in the chain of life, as represented by gaps in the blurred and incomplete documents afforded by fragmentary fossils, are a necessary consequence of the general plan of geological evolution; they mark missing chapters rather than sudden breaks in an evolutionary series.
It was at the close of the Wealden period that a second evolutionary wave swept over the vegetation of the world.
Physical conditions no doubt played an important part, but whatever cause may have had the greatest share in disturbing the equilibrium of evolutionary forces, it would seem that the apparently sudden appearance of Cycads and other types at the close of the Palaeozoic period made a widespread and sudden impression on the whole character of the vegetation.
From the floras of the Tertiary age we pass by gradual stages to those which characterize the present phase of evolutionary progress.
On the other hand, many evolutionists ignore the certainty that there must be a continuum in any real evolutionary process.
On the other hand some seek the essential Christianity in a life beneath and separable from the historic forms. In part under the influence of the Hegelian philosophy, and in part because of the prevalent evolutionary scientific world-view, God is represented under the form of pure thought, and the world process as the unfolding of himself.
Baur maintained a thorough-going evolutionary optimism.