The doctrine of evolution in its finished and definite form is a modern product.
The origin and evolution of the Australian marsupials have been discussed by Mr B.
More especially the cosmology of Anaximander resembles the modern doctrine of evolution in its conception of the indeterminate (rO filr€Lpov) out of which the particular forms of the cosmos are differentiated.
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
His theory of evolution is essentially pantheistic, and he does not employ his hypothesis of monads in order to work out a more mechanical conception.
He played a conspicuous part in the modern doctrine of evolution.
Pollock has taken pains to show how nearly Spinoza approaches certain ideas contained in the modern doctrine of evolution, as for example that of sell-preservation as the determining force in things.
The man who breaks the law is himself a product of social evolution and cannot be regarded as solely responsible for his disposition to transgress.
Bensley, "A Theory of the Origin and Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia," American Naturalist (1901); "On the Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia, &c.," Trans.
Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.
4 Evolution, repelled by the older intuitionalism, was thus incorporated in the greatest of all idealisms. It has also been largely applied to empiricism.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
In the system of Giordano Bruno, who sought to construct a philosophy of nature on the basis of new scientific ideas, more particularly the doctrine of Copernicus, we find the outlines of a theory of cosmic evolution conceived as an essentially vital process.
Yet while thus placing himself at a point of view opposed to that of a gradual evolution of the organic world, Locke prepared the way for this doctrine in more ways than one.
In this way we see that just as advancing natural science was preparing the way for a doctrine of physical evolution, so advancing historical research was leading to the application of a similar idea to the collective human life.
The formative force in this process of evolution (or " metamorphosis ") is conceived as an intellectual principle (idee generatrice).
Haeckel considers that the Siphonophores have two distinct ancestral lines of evolution: I.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
In the modern doctrine of evolution the cosmic system appears as a natural product of elementary matter and its laws.
He further recognizes a progress in the production of vegetable and animal forms, though this part of his theory is essentially crude and unscientific. More important in relation to the modern problems of evolution is his thoroughly materialistic way of explaining the origin of sensation and knowledge by help of his peculiar hypothesis of effluvia and pores.
Aristotle is much nearer a conception of evolution than his master Plato.
Aristotle's teleological conception of organic evolution often approaches modern mechanical conceptions.
Matter and form are here identified, and the evolution of the world is presented as the unfolding of the world-spirit to its perfect forms according to the plastic substratum (matter) which is but one of its sides.
Among his essays may be mentioned The Evolution of Self-Consciousness and two articles published in 1871 on the Genesis of Species.
A certain dogmatic development is not denied, nor an evolution in the direction of a centralization in the hands of the pope of the exercise of his powers as primate; it is merely required that this evolution should be well understood and.
- [[History In Different Countries]] From this general outline of Presbyterianism we now turn to consider its evolution and history in some of the countries with which it is or has been specially associated.
The universe is so immeasurably vast in extension and duration, and man is so small, his home but a speck in space, and his history a span in time that it seems an arrogant assumption for him to claim exemption from the universal law of evolution and dissolution.
The English translations (Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory and Creative Evolution) all belong to 1910-1.
The next great chapter in the history of against Italian evolution is the war of the burghs against the nobles, nobles.
But fuller conceptions of evolution raise further difficulties for intuitionalism in its wonted forms. Knowledge cannot be divided into the two components - immediate certainties, precarious inferences.
Sometimes one questions whether empiricism is really still empiricist; so much of the a priori has come in under the name of evolution (e.g.