The doctrine of evolution in its finished and definite form is a modern product.
As such, moreover, it is a much more limited theory of evolution than the ancient.
Darwin's theory of evolution is based upon the idea of natural selection.
The man who breaks the law is himself a product of social evolution and cannot be regarded as solely responsible for his disposition to transgress.
Yet on the whole Aristotle leans to a teleological theory of evolution, which he interprets dualistually by means of certain metaphysical distinctions.
He played a conspicuous part in the modern doctrine of evolution.
Pollock has taken pains to show how nearly Spinoza approaches certain ideas contained in the modern doctrine of evolution, as for example that of sell-preservation as the determining force in things.
Bensley, "A Theory of the Origin and Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia," American Naturalist (1901); "On the Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia, &c.," Trans.
Aristotle is much nearer a conception of evolution than his master Plato.
Lucretius thus recognizes the whole range of existence to which the doctrine of evolution may be applied.
Aristotle's teleological conception of organic evolution often approaches modern mechanical conceptions.
These theories, however, contain little that bears directly on the hypothesis of a natural evolution of things.
Its evolution and the thorough application of its principles to actual church life came later, not in Saxony or Switzerland, but in France and Scotland; and through Scotland it has passed to all English-speaking lands.
The next great chapter in the history of against Italian evolution is the war of the burghs against the nobles, nobles.
Haeckel considers that the Siphonophores have two distinct ancestral lines of evolution: I.
More especially the cosmology of Anaximander resembles the modern doctrine of evolution in its conception of the indeterminate (rO filr€Lpov) out of which the particular forms of the cosmos are differentiated.
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
In the modern doctrine of evolution the cosmic system appears as a natural product of elementary matter and its laws.
In the system of Giordano Bruno, who sought to construct a philosophy of nature on the basis of new scientific ideas, more particularly the doctrine of Copernicus, we find the outlines of a theory of cosmic evolution conceived as an essentially vital process.
Yet while thus placing himself at a point of view opposed to that of a gradual evolution of the organic world, Locke prepared the way for this doctrine in more ways than one.
The formative force in this process of evolution (or " metamorphosis ") is conceived as an intellectual principle (idee generatrice).
Vico may have derived from Grotius the idea of natural law; but his discovery of the historic evolution of law was first suggested to him by his study of Roman law.
- [[History In Different Countries]] From this general outline of Presbyterianism we now turn to consider its evolution and history in some of the countries with which it is or has been specially associated.
The short period of this evolution is at least one factor in the primitive grade of even the most specialized members of the group. In the advance of their molar teeth from a tritubercular to a grinding type, the author traces a curious parallelism between marsupials and placentals.
Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.
In this instance it may happen that the work of intelligence has only been mimicked in nature by blind forces which have accidentally produced organic life; and Mill is disposed to hold that if the evolution of species should be clearly established as due to natural law - if there has been no creation by special interposition - the argument falls to the ground and theism (apparently) is lost.
" If there is a reading of the new theories of evolution in nature which revives rather than darkens hope in immortality and faith in God, Tennyson gave an early sketch of that tentative modern theism.
Caird (St Andrews: The Evolution of Religion; Glasgow: The Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophies) represent speculative treatment on a basis of Hegelianism.
Huxley, the sporosac is the starting-point of an evolution leading up through the various types of gonophores to the free medusa as the culminating point of a phyletic series.
Anaximenes seems to have inclined to a view of cosmic evolution as throughout involving a quasi-spiritual factor.
Aristotle's distinction of form and matter, and his conception of becoming as a transition from actuality to potentiality, provides a new ontological way of conceiving the process of material and organic evolution.'
Matter and form are here identified, and the evolution of the world is presented as the unfolding of the world-spirit to its perfect forms according to the plastic substratum (matter) which is but one of its sides.
In this way we see that just as advancing natural science was preparing the way for a doctrine of physical evolution, so advancing historical research was leading to the application of a similar idea to the collective human life.
The origin and evolution of the Australian marsupials have been discussed by Mr B.
The English translations (Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory and Creative Evolution) all belong to 1910-1.
But fuller conceptions of evolution raise further difficulties for intuitionalism in its wonted forms. Knowledge cannot be divided into the two components - immediate certainties, precarious inferences.
4 The idea of evolution in time (physical evolution) was laughed at by Hegel.
He may be said to furnish a further contribution to a metaphysical conception of evolution in his view of all finite individual things as the infinite variety to which the unlimited productive power of the universal substance gives birth.
4 Evolution, repelled by the older intuitionalism, was thus incorporated in the greatest of all idealisms. It has also been largely applied to empiricism.