A much less wise class than the 7r-computers of modern times are the pseudo-circle-squarers, or circle-squarers technically so called, that is to say, persons who, having obtained by illegitimate means a Euclidean construction for the quadrature or a finitely expressible value for 7r, insist on using faulty reasoning and defective mathematics to establish their assertions.
For the subjects under this heading see the articles CONIC SECTIONS; CIRCLE; CURVE; GEOMETRICAL CONTINUITY; GEOMETRY, Axioms of; GEOMETRY, Euclidean; GEOMETRY, Projective; GEOMETRY, Analytical; GEOMETRY, Line; KNOTS, MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF; MENSURATION; MODELS; PROJECTION; Surface; Trigonometry.
At the same time, it delights the pure theorist by the simplicity of the logic with which the fundamental theorems may be established, and by the elegance of its mathematical operations, insomuch that hydrostatics may be considered as the Euclidean pure geometry of mechanical science.
Reference should be made to the article Geometry: Euclidean, for a detailed summary of the Euclidean treatment, and the elementary properties of the circle.
The problem of finding a square equal in area to a given circle, like all problems, may be increased in difficulty by the imposition of restrictions; consequently under the designation there may be embraced quite a variety of geometrical problems. It has to be noted, however, that, when the " squaring " of the circle is especially spoken of, it is almost always tacitly assumed that the restrictions are those of the Euclidean geometry.
Since the area of a circle equals that of the rectilineal triangle whose base has the same length as the circumference and whose altitude equals the radius (Archimedes, KIKXou A ir, prop.i), it follows that, if a straight line could be drawn equal in length to the circumference, the required square could be found by an ordinary Euclidean construction; also, it is evident that, conversely, if a square equal in area to the circle could be obtained it would be possible to draw a straight line equal to the circumference.
Montucla, successful attempt to show that quadrature of the circle by a Euclidean construction was impossible.'
In 1873 Charles Hermite proved that the base of the Napierian logarithms cannot be a root of a rational algebraical equation of any degree.3 To prove the same proposition regarding 7r is to prove that a Euclidean construction for circle-quadrature is impossible.
A discussion of these concepts and the various definitions of angles in Euclidean geometry is to be found in W.
A special application of his theory of continuous groups was to the general problem of non-Euclidean geometry.
Spinoza's philosophy is expounded ordine geometrico and with Euclidean cogency from a relatively small number of definitions, axioms and postulates.
(1) Generation of the concept through imaginaries and development into a method applicable to Euclidean geometry.
He was much interested, too, in universal algebra, non-Euclidean geometry and elliptic functions, his papers "Preliminary Sketch of Bi-quaternions" (1873) and "On the Canonical Form and Dissection of a Riemann's Surface" (1877) ranking as classics.
0) 2 = i suitable for non-Euclidean space, and w 2 = o suitable for Euclidean space; we confine ourselves to the second, and will call the indicated bi-quaternion p+wq an octonion.
To fix a weighted point and a weighted plane in Euclidean space we require 8 scalars, and not the 12 scalars of a tri-quaternion.