Keating, The Agape and the Eucharist (London, 1901); F.
All those who in the middle ages denied the substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist were commonly designated Berengarians.
Against Crypto-Calvinists he upheld the Lutheran view of the eucharist in his Repetitio sanae doctrinae de Vera Praesentia (1560; in German, 1561).
His Zwinglian view of the Eucharist disturbed his relations with his Catholic colleagues.
The Protestant controversy on the Eucharist (1524) revealed his disagreement with Luther on that critical point.
For example, the priests are not to be chosen by the people; penitents are not to be present at ordinations (lest they should hear the failings of candidates discussed); bishops are to be appointed by the metropolitan and his suffragan; sub-deacons may not distribute the elements of the Eucharist; clerics are forbidden to leave a diocese without the bishop's permission.
About this time he changed his views on the Eucharist and swung clean over from transubstantiation to the advanced Zwinglian position.
Its signification was authoritatively defined by the Council of Trent in the following words: "If any one shall say that, in the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist there remains, together with the Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the substance of the Bread and Wine, and shall deny that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the Bread into (His) Body and of the Wine into (His) Blood, the species only of the Bread and Wine remaining - which conversion the Catholic Church most fittingly calls Transubstantiation - let him be anathema."
This contained four treatises on the Eucharist, the sacrifice of the Mass, the erection of the patriarchate of Constantinople (in Latin), and the sacrament of the Eucharist (in French).
In them was celebrated the funeral-feast on the day of burial and on its anniversary, as well as the eucharist, which was the invariable accompaniment of funerals in the primitive church (Bingham, FIG.Io.
Hitherto the chasuble had been worn indifferently by all ministers at the eucharist, even by the acolytes; it had been worn also at processions and other non-liturgical functions; it was now exalted into the mass vestment par excellence, worn by the celebrant only, or by his immediate assistants (deacon and subdeacon) only on very special occasions.
He wears all these vestments only at the celebration of the eucharist and on other very solemn occasions; at other ministrations he wears only the epitrachelion and phainolion over his cassock.
At the present day the Lutheran Churches of Denmark and Scandinavia retain the use of alb and chasuble in the celebration of the eucharist (stole, amice, girdle and maniple were disused after the Reformation), and for bishops the cope and mitre.
They allegorized the Eucharist and explained away the bread and wine of which Jesus said to His apostles, "Take, eat and drink," as mere words of Christ, and denied that we ought to offer bread and wine as a sacrifice.
In penance, of the formula " I absolve thee "; in the Eucharist, of the words " This is my body " and " This is the cup of my blood " or " This is my blood "; in confirmation, of the words " I sign thee with sign of the cross and confirm thee with chrism of salvation in name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit "; in baptism, of the words " I baptize thee in the name of Father, Son and Holy Spirit (or among the Greeks " N.
Thus baptism is not valid if wine or ice be used instead of water, nor the Eucharist if water be consecrated in place of wine, nor confirmation unless the chrism has been blessed by a bishop; also olive oil must be used.
The distinction, be it noted, of form and matter seems more appropriate to the sacraments of baptism, Eucharist, confirmation and last unction, than to those of orders, penance and matrimony.
Moreover, he did not believe that Zwingli, who con ceived the eucharist to be merely symbolical in its character, " held the whole truth of God."
The association in the synoptics of the earliest eucharist with the paschal sacrifice provided a model, and long after the eucharist was separated with the agape on other days of the year, we still find celebrated on the evening of Maundy Thursday the sacrifice of the [[Paschal (disambiguation)|paschal ]], immediately followed by an eucharist.
The custom which most resembles the eucharist and agape was that known as charistia described by Valerius Maximus ii.
"fountain") a sort of eucharist, which has a special sanctifying efficacy, and is usually dispensed at festivals, but only to baptized persons of good repute who have never willingly denied the Mandaean faith.
A-, without; 0,un, leaven), a name given by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, a practice which arose in the 9th century and is also observed by Armenians and Maronites following the Jewish passover custom.
The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.
Early the next morning he received the Holy Eucharist and left before any one could recognize him, going to the neighbouring town of Manresa, where he first lived in the hospice.
The sacrament of the most Holy Eucharist shall be freely administered in the two kinds, that is bread and wine, to all the faithful in Christ who are not precluded by mortal sin - according to the word and disposition of Our Saviour.
A sacred communion of bread, water and possibly wine, compared by the Christian apologists to the Eucharist, was administered to the mystic who was entering upon one of the advanced degrees, perhaps Leo.
2) may ordain validly, and that a priest who has been degraded can still celebrate the Eucharist (Summ.
M de Remusat characterizes his view on the Eucharist as a specific application of Nominalism.
The most interesting example of this method is seen in the Tractatus de sacramento altaris where Occam accepts the doctrine of Real Presence as a matter of Faith, and sets forth a rational theory of the Eucharist (afterwards adopted by Luther) known as " Consubstantiation."
466), and his teaching on the Eucharist in the Canons and in the Sermo de sacrificio in die pascae (ibid.
Such allegorization meets us already in Origen, Eusebius and other early fathers, and is quite compatible with that use of a material Eucharist which Nerses II.
On every Christian, of either sex, arrived at years of discretion, the duty was imposed of confessing at least once annually and of receiving the Eucharist at least at Easter (Canon 21).
Nor did an extremely offensive performance of Voltaire's - the solemn partaking of the Eucharist at Colmar after due confession - at all mollify his enemies.
831; new ed., with an epistle to Charles the Bald, 844), which was not only the first systematic and thorough treatise on the sacrament of the eucharist, but is the first clear dogmatic statement of transubstantiation, and as such opened an unending controversy.
Here is celebrated the Eucharist (Qurbana, or the offering; cf.
Vestments are worn only at the ministration of the sacraments; incense is used invariably at the Eucharist and frequently at other services.
The "Holy Leaven" is reputed to be a part of the original bread of the first Eucharist, brought by Addai and Mari' and maintained ever since in the Church; it is used in the confection of the Eucharistic wafers, which are rather thicker than those used in the Western Church.
Though it was an attempt to bring into line with the reforming party both those who still inclined to the old faith and the anabaptist section, its publication provoked a good deal of controversy, especially on its statements concerning the Eucharist, and the people of Strassburg even reproached those of Basel with celebrating a Christless supper.
Its use in the Eucharist of the undivided Church has been continued since the great schism, although the Eastern Church protests against the interpolation 1 Jevons, Introd.
The tradition which St Paul received included, so to speak, the germ of the central prayer in the Eucharist (r Cor.
In medieval architecture the term is applied on the European continent to that portion of a chancel, which, enclosed with a railing or balustrade in front of the altar, is devoted to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; this in England is generally known as the presbytery.
We learn further that Anicetus as a mark of special honour allowed Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in the church, and that many Marcionites and Valentinians were converted by him during his stay in Rome.
The former, which involved exclusion from participation in the eucharistic service and from the eucharist itself, though not from the so-called "service of the catechumens," was the usual punishment of comparatively light offences; the latter, which was the penalty for graver scandals, involved "exclusion from all church privileges," - a vague expression which has sometimes been interpreted as meaning total exclusion from the very precincts of the church building (inter hiemantes orare) and from the favour of God (Bingham, Antiquities of Christian Church, xvi.
In the work About the Crown, chap. iii., he describes how the faithful " take the sacrament of the Eucharist also in their meetings held before dawn."
The two principal ones necessary to salvation are baptism and the Eucharist; then come the water of aspersion and the wearing of cinders, and so forth; these advance a man in sanctity.
The Anglicans recognize baptism and the Eucharist alone, under the impression that Christ ordained these and none other.
Water with immersion in the case of baptism; bread and wine in the Eucharist; anointing and laying on of hands in confirmation; contrition in the sacrament of penance.
That catechumens could not participate in the agape or love-feast (of which in this epoch the Eucharist was merely an episode) does not give to those feasts the character of a Greek mystery.
The uncircumcized proselyte was similarly excluded from the Paschal meal on which the Eucharist was largely modelled, even though it may not have been in any way a continuation of the same.
At a later period, however, the difficulty of screening the rites of baptism and Eucharist from the eyes of catechumens and from their ears the creeds and liturgies - a difficulty which had ever been formidable and which after the overthrow of paganism must have become insurmountable - seems to have provoked not only a great outpouring on the part of the Christian rhetors, like Basil, Chrysostom, the Gregories and the Cyrils, of phrases borrowed from the Greek mysteries, but perhaps an actual use of precautions.
5th centuries in their, discourses often make a point of not citing the creed or describing the Eucharist; they stop short and ejaculate such remarks as 'oa6cv of irco-roi, norunt fideles (" the faithful know it ").
Especially he had written to Pere Mesland, one of the order, to show how the Catholic doctrine of the eucharist might be made compatible with his theories of matter.
He is a good enough Lutheran to quote as a " mystery " the Eucharist no less than the Trinity, while he insists that truths above are not against reason.
For, although the council of Trent recognized fully the distinction which has been mentioned above between the Eucharist and the sacrifice of the mass, and treated of them in separate sessions (the former in Session xiii., the latter in Session xxii.), it continued the medieval theory of the nature of the latter.
Is agape and eucharist in one, and it is held in a private house and not in church, and the celebrants are holy women!
The use of the word is, however, late, the vigiliae (pernoctationes, 7ravvvXiSes) having originally been the services, consisting of prayers, hymns, processions and sometimes the eucharist, celebrated on the preceding night in preparation for the feast.
The history of the agape coincides, until the end of the 2nd century, with that of the eucharist, and it is doubtful whether the following detailed account of the agape given in Tertullian's Apology (c. 39) is to be regarded as exclusive of an accompanying eucharist: "It is the banquet (triclinium) alone of the Christians that is criticised.
This was true enough, but there is truth also in the remark of Prof. Sanday ("Eucharist" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible) that Providence even in its revolutions is conservative.