It contains an important museum of Etruscan and Roman antiquities.
The Etruscan necropolis of the ancient city was discovered in 1870.
The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno - the massive Etruscan terrace-walls, naturally, can hardly have suffered at all - and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose.
Close by are two Gothic buildings, the bishop's palace (1264) and the Palazzo dei Papi (begun in 1296), the latter with a huge hall now containing the Museo Civico, with various medieval works of art, and also objects from the Etruscan necropolis of the ancient Volsinii (q.v.).
The Palazzo Faina has another interesting Etruscan collection.
He joined the Illyrians in an attempt to plunder the temple of Delphi, pillaged the temple of Caere on the Etruscan coast, and founded several military colonies on the Adriatic. In the Peloponnesian War he espoused the side of the Spartans, and assisted them with mercenaries.
The Cilnii with whom Maecenas was connected were a noble Etruscan family.
Of Palo is a row of large mounds called I Monteroni, which belong to tombs of the Etruscan cemetery.
The first real advance towards their interpretation was made by Otfried Muller (Die Etrusker, 1828), who pointed out that though their alphabet was akin to the Etruscan their language was Italic. Lepsius, in his essay De tabulis Eugubinis (1833), finally determined the value of the Umbrian signs and the received order of the Tables, pointing out that those in Latin alphabet were the latest.
It is clear, however, that the Celtic and Etruscan elements together occupied the greater part of the district between the Apennines and the Alps down to its Romanization, which took place gradually in the course of the 2nd century B.C. Their linguistic neighbors were Ligurian in the south and south-west, and the Veneti on the east.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria.
Illyrian, not an Etruscan, foundation - still less a foundation of Dionysius I.
Etruscan tombs have been found in the neighbourhood, but it is not certain that the present town stands on an ancient site.
A cup found in an Etruscan tomb bears the inscription "Lavernai Pocolom," and in a fragment of Septimius Serenus Laverna is expressly mentioned in connexion with the di inferi.
He prided himself on his ancient Etruscan lineage, and claimed descent from the princely house of the Cilnii, who excited the jealousy of their townsmen by their preponderating wealth and influence at Arretium in the 4th century B.C. (Livy x.
It was said by classical writers to be of Etruscan origin, and to have been founded, under the name Felsina, from Perusia by Aucnus or Ocnus.
B.C.), of which the latter immediately preceded the Etruscan civilization (c. 600-400 B.C.).
The frescoes from the Francois tomb, discovered in 1857, illustrating Greek and Etruscan myths, are now in the Museo Torlonia at Rome.
A large Etruscan necropolis was found in 1874, dating from the 5th century B.C. The tombs, constructed of blocks of stone and arranged in rows divided by passages (like houses in a town), often had the name of the deceased on the facade.
Etruscan tombs have been found on the Isola Bisentina, in the lake; and on the west bank was the town of Visentium, Roman inscriptions belonging to which have been found.
It is impossible not to be struck with the remarkable analogy between these rock-hewn chairs and those discovered in the Etruscan tombs, of the purpose of which no satisfactory explanation has been given.
As a typical example of the Etruscan tombs we give the plan and section (figs.
The site, surrounded by ravines and accessible only on the W., is naturally strong and characteristic of an Etruscan town; on this side there is a considerable fragment of the ancient Etruscan wall, built of rectangular blocks of tufa (whether the rest of the site was protected by walls is uncertain), and a ruined castle, erected by Antonio da Sangallo the elder in 1499, for Pope Alexander VI., and restored by Pope .Paul III.
The valves are, consequently, essentially symmetrical, which is not the case with the Lamellibranchiata, - so much so, that certain Brachiopod shells were named Lampades, or lamp shells, by some early naturalists; but while such may bear a kind of resemblance to an antique Etruscan lamp, by far the larger number in no way resemble one.
The have been identified by Helbig with small spirals of gold wire, such as are found in early Etruscan tombs lying near the head of the skeleton.
22), an Etruscan work of the 3rd century B.C., represents a man clothed in this garment, which will be described below.
On public or festal occasions the Etruscan noble wore, besides the tebenna, a bulla, or necklace of bullae, and a wreath, corona Etrusca.
Etruscan shoes were prized both in Greece and in Rome.
See also the works on Etruscan civilization named in the art.
A profusion of precious stones, and absence of skill or refinement in workmanship, distinguish Roman from Greek or Etruscan jewelry; but in the character of the designs there is no real difference.
We hear of a naval expedition to the Etruscan coast and Corsica about 453 B.C. and of the great military and naval preparations of Syracuse in 439 (Diod.
The Opera del Duomo contains models and pieces of sculpture connected with the cathedral; the Etruscan and Egyptian museum, the gallery of tapestries, the Michelangelo museum, the museum of natural history and other collections are all important in different ways.
After the expulsion of the Tarquins the chief events in Etruscan history are the vain attempt to re-establish themselves in Rome under Lars Porsena of Clusium, the defeat of Octavius Mamilius, son-in-law of Tarquinius Superbus, at Lake Regillus, and the treaty with Carthage.
This last event shows that the Etruscan power was formidable, and that by means of their fleet the Etruscans held under their exclusive control the commerce of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
In 474 the Etruscan fleet was destroyed by Hiero I.
The battle of the Vadimonian Lake (309) finally extinguished Etruscan independence, though for nearly two centuries still the prosperity df the Etruscan cities far exceeded that of Rome itself.
Etruscan Antiquities >>
The Etruscan used the same v-symbol inverted.
The Museo Lapidario contains a fine collection of Roman and Etruscan inscriptions and sculpture, mostly collected and published by Scipione Maffei in the 18th century.
Through the mediation of Falerii, a Latin town on the Etruscan border, was due the introduction of Minerva, who, as the goddess of handicraft and protectress of the artisan gilds, was established in a temple on the Aventine.
Soon, however, she found her way on to the Capitol, and there a new Etruscan triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, possibly going back from Etruria to Greece, was enshrined in a magnificent new temple built by Etruscan workmen and decorated in the Etruscan manner.
It is surrounded by its ancient Etruscan walls, which for the greater part of the circuit are fairly well preserved.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
The figure of an Etruscan augur holding a liver in his hand as his trade-mark (Korte, ib.
As for the Greeks, it is still an open question whether they perfected their method of hepatoscopy under Etruscan influence or through the Babylonians.
20 and should be called rather Etruscan than archaic. These characteristics of II.
When more is known of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions it may become possible to date the Iguvine Tables by their alphabetic peculiarities as compared with their mother-alphabet, the Etruscan.
It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art.